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Erdogan’s regime

TÜRKİYE CEZAEVLERİNDEKİ KORONAVİRÜS VAKALARINA DAİR OLAY İNCELEMESİ, TESPİTLER VE ÖNERİLER

Bu çalışmamızda, küresel salgın sürecinde, Türkiye’deki cezaevlerinde görülen teyidli koronavirüs vakaları ve bu dönemdeki resmi açıklamalar ile bunlara dayalı olarak yapılan tespit ve önerilerimiz yer almaktadır.
Gerek tarafımıza ulaşan tutuklu ve hükümlü yakınlarının beyanları, gerek açık kaynaklarda yer alan yazılı ve sözlü ifadeler, gerekse de insan hakları aktivisti kişi ve kurumların paylaşımları ile görülüyor ki, Türkiye’de cezaevleri, kapasitesinin çok üzerinde doluluk oranı ile tutuklu ve hükümlüler için önü alınamayan yaşamsal riskler barındırıyor. Son dönemde gerçekleşen infaz düzenlemesi de, T.C. Anayasası’nın 10. maddesi ve AİHS 14. maddesine aykırı olarak, eşitsiz ve ayrımcı yapısı sebebiyle bu riski ortadan kaldırmaktan çok uzak ne yazık ki.

Koronavirüs Vakaları

Birçok kişi tarafından muhtelif sosyal paylaşım uygulamalarında paylaşılan ve içeriği, kaynak kişi tarafından da teyid edilen ses kayıtları ile cezaevlerindeki koşullar dile getirilmiş, pekçok tutuklu ve hükümlü yakını tarafından da benzer mahiyette yazılı paylaşımlarda bulunulmuştur. Bu paylaşımlarda, cezaevlerindeki tutuklu ve hükümlülerin T.C. Anayasası’nın 17. maddesi ve AİHS’in 2. maddesiyle koruma altında bulunan en temel ve evrensel insan hakkı mahiyetindeki yaşam hakkının açık, ağır ve yakın tehlike altında olduğunun bizzat tutuklu ve hükümlüler tarafından dile getirildiği görülmektedir.

Cezaevlerindeki koşulların aktarıldığı tutuklu/mahkum veya yakınlarına ilişkin beyanlar aşağıda derlenmiştir:

03 Nisan 2020: “68 yaşındaki Ahmet Türkmen’in, diğer ciddi sağlık sorunlarının yanı sıra, kronik kalp rahatsızlığı öyküsü var ve ciddi bir by-pass operasyonu geçirmiş. Son üç yıldır Kayseri 1 No’lu T-tip hapishanesinde tutuluyor ve terör örgütü üyesi olmak suçundan 2018 yılında aldığı 14 yıllık mahkumiyet kararı temyiz aşamasında. … Adli Tıp Kurumu’nun Türkmen’in altı ayda bir sağlık kontrolünden geçirilmesini tavsiye etmiş olmasına karşın, Türkmen son üç yılda sadece bir kez sağlık kontrolünden geçirilmiş. Üç kişilik bir koğuşta, 10 mahpusla birlikte kalan Türkmen’in yaşamı için KOVİD-19 ciddi bir risk oluşturabilir. Türkmen’in avukatı 18 Mart günü KOVİD-19 riskini gerekçe göstererek Türkmen’in sağlık durumu sebebiyle tahliyesi için Yargıtay’a başvuruda bulundu.

 “61 yaşındaki İsmet Özçelik, Malezya’daki bir okulun eski müdürü ve 2017 Mayıs’ından bu yana Türkiye’de, Denizli T-tipi hapishanesinde tutuluyor. Özçelik, Malezya’daki BM mülteci ajansına iltica başvurusu yapmış olmasına rağmen, Malezya’da kaçırılarak, zorla Türkiye’ye gönderilmiş. 2019 Mayıs’ında BM İnsan Hakları Komitesi Türkiye’nin, Özçelik’in Uluslararası Medeni ve Siyasi Haklar Sözleşmesi tarafından teminat altına alınan insan haklarını ihlal ettiğine, tahliye edilmesi ve kendisine tazminat ödenmesi gerektiğine karar verdi. Türkiye bu kararı uygulamadı. … Özçelik’in aldığı 10 yıllık mahkumiyet kararı halen temyiz aşamasında. Kalp rahatsızlığı bulunan Özçelik, 2019 yılında bir kalp krizi geçirdiğini hissettiği noktada zamanında tıbbi müdahale yapılmamış olduğunu bildirdi. Özçelik’in avukatı, Özçelik’in acil şikayetinden haftalar sonra geçirildiği sağlık kontrolüne ilişkin ayrıntılı raporun bir nüshasının kendisine verilmediğini belirtti. Özçelik’in avukatları Mart ayı ortalarında Özçelik’in sağlık durumu sebebiyle KOVİD-19 riski bağlamında tahliye edilmesi için Yargıtay’a başvuruda bulundular.”

 Eski bir polis memuru olan 48 yaşındaki Hüseyin Soykan 44 aydır Karaman M-tipi cezaevinde tutuluyor. … Soykan’ın kronik bir akciğer rahatsızlığı bulunduğunu ve geçmişte akciğerlerinden birinin sönmüş (pnömotoraks) olduğunu gösteren tıbbi raporlar var. Cezaevindeyken iki kez acilen hastaneye kaldırılmış. Soykan 8 kişilik bir koğuşta 28 mahpusla birlikte kalıyor. Aynı koğuştaki başka bir mahpus, Amir Gülaçtı, avukatının kötü hapishane koşullarının mahpusların sağlığını olumsuz etkilediği yönünde bir şikayette bulunmasından kısa bir süre sonra 20 Ekim 2019 tarihinde yaşamınıyitirmiş. Gülaçtı’nın ölüm sebebinin kalp yetmezliği olduğu düşünülüyor. Gülaçtı’nın ölümü ile ilgili Adli Tıp Kurumu’nun otopsi raporunun çıkması bekleniyor. Soykan’nın sağlık durumu KOVİD-19 karşısında ölümcül risk altında olduğu anlamına geliyor. Avukatı Soykan’ın sağlık durumu sebebiyle tahliye edilmesi için 19 Mart günü Yargıtay’a başvurdu.”[1]

08 Mayıs 2020: Silivri C.İ.K.7 nolu B12 koğuşunda Hüseyin Kaçan defalarca “Biz kötüyüz, bize test yapın” denmesine rağmen olumsuz cevap aldı. B 12 koğuşunda 39 kişi bulunmaktadır. 25 Nisanda corona belirtileri görülmesine rağmen cezaevi yönetimi hiç bir şekilde koğuşta bulunanlarla ilgilenmediği, koğuşta bulunan 48 yaşındaki birisi iftar saatinde bayıldıktan sonra işin ciddiyetini anlaşıldığı, Buna rağmen test yaptırılması için herhangi bir girişimde bulunmadığı iddia ediliyor.  Koğuşta kalanların ailesi Alo 184 ü araması sonucu Sağlık Bakanlığı cezaevine test için görevlileri göndermiştir. Testler 06.05.2020 tarihinde yapılmış 07.05.2020’de sonuçlanmış e nabızdan alınan raporlara göre koğuşta bulunan herkesin testi pozitif çıkmıştır. Buna rağmen cezaevi yönetimi hiç bir şekilde koğuşta bulunanlarla ilgilenmemektedir. Tedavileri için herhangi bir şey yapmamaktadırlar.[2]

08 Mayıs 2020:i Silivri 7 No’lu Cezaevi B-12 koğuşunda bulunan D, eşinin kalp hastası olan anne ve babasının durumdan haberi olmadığı için isimlerinin açıklanmasını istemiyor. 39 yaşındaki eşinin Covid-19 testinin pozitif çıktığını dün öğrenen D, Artı Gerçek’e yaptığı açıklamada yaşananları şöyle anlatıyor: “C-7’de vaka olduğunu öğrenince endişeliyim, sizin durumunuz ne diye sordum. ‘Pazartesi iki arkadaşı koğuştan aldılar ve bir daha getirmediler, bence pozitif çıktı. Zaten hepimiz hastalandık, grip gibi geçirdik, kusanlar oldu’ dedi. Test yapıldı mı, diye sordum. ‘Bırak test yapmayı sahur ve iftarı iki kaşık çorba ile geçiriyoruz. Durum çok vahim. İlk kez telefona çıkarken maske verdiler’ dedi.” C-7 koğuşunda kalan Yasin Solmaz’ın babası Ekrem Solmaz da oğlunun Covid-19 testinin pozitif çıktığını dün akşam öğrenmiş.[3]

 11 Mayıs 2020: HDP Kocaeli Milletvekili Ömer Faruk Gergerlioğlu, Silivri Cezaevi’nde Covid-19 vakalarında ciddi artışlar olduğuna dikkat çekti. Daha önce Silivri 7 no’lu cezaevinde Covid-19 vakalarının olduğunu ve B-10, B-12, C-7 koğuşlarında Covid-19 vakalarına rastlandığını duyuran Gergerlioğlu, şimdi de Silivri 8 nolu cezaevindeki C-6 koğuşunda pozitif vakaların olduğunu ve vakaların 5 no’lu koğuşa da yayıldığını açıkladı.[4]

11 Mayıs 2020: Eşi C-6 koğuşunda tutuklu olan ve ismini vermek istemeyen tutuklu yakını, koğuşta 30 kişinin test sonucunun pozitif olduğunu, 4 kişinin test sonucunun ise negatif çıktığını, diğer 2-3 kişi hakkında bilgi alamadıklarını söyledi. Test sonuçları negatif çıkan tutuklular başka koğuşa alınırken, sonucu pozitif çıkan tutuklular ise bir arada kalmaya devam ediyor ancak hiçbir tedavi uygulanmıyor dedi. Durumu ciddi olan tutukluların bulunduğunu dile getiren tutuklu yakını, “aslında olay yeni değil, iki hafta önce koğuşta yüksek ateş şikayeti olanlar vardı fakat durum ciddiye alınmadı.Böylece herkese yayıldı” dedi.[5]

14 Mayıs 2020: Silivri’de 7 numaralı cezaevinde kalan Ali Rıza Karaboğa’nın telefon görüşmesi sırasında eşine aktardığı bilgiye göre, kaldıkları koğuşa komşu olan B-8 numaralı koğuştan iki kişiye koronavirüs testi yapıldığı ve testi pozitif çıkan mahkumların tekrardan kaldıkları koğuşa geri gönderildikleri öğrenildi.

Eşimle iki hafta önce yapmış olduğumuz telefon görüşünde süreç başladığından bu yana ilk defa ateşlerinin ölçüldüğünü bu hafta aradığında da aynı şekilde bir kez daha ateş ölçümleri yapıldığını, ve telefon görüşüne çıktıklarında maske verildiğini bize aktardı.[6] 

14 Mayıs 2020: 6 yıl 3 ay hapis cezası verilen ve 8 aydır Sincan Cezaevi’nde bulunan ve Korona risk grubundaki gazeteci Çetin Çiftçi’ye, Covid 19 tanısı konuldu. Böbrek ve kalp rahatsızlıkları olan Çiftçi’nin tedavi altında olduğu öğrenildi. Gazeteci Çetin Çiftçi’nin kronik rahatsızlıkları bulunması nedeniyle eşi Selda Çiftçi’nin kendi çabalarıyla yaptığı araştırmada, cezaevinde defalarca rahatsızlanarak hastaneye götürüldüğü ortaya çıktı.[7]

14 Mayıs 2020: Silivri Cezaevi’nde koronavirüs vakalarında büyük artış yaşandığını söyleyen HDP Milletvekili Ömer Faruk Gergerlioğlu, 7 kişilik bazı koğuşlarda 45 kişi kaldığını ifade etti. Gergerlioğlu kendisine ailelerden ve mahpuslardan iletilen bazı mektupları da paylaştı. O mektuplardan birkaçı şöyle:

  •             “Z. A. Silivri 5 No’lu Kapalı Cezaevinde kalmaktadır. Annesi ile yaptığı telefon görüşmesinde; ateşinin olduğunu bu nedenle 2 defa revire götürüldüğünü daha sonra çağırılan ambulansta mahpustan ambulansın içinde bir örnek
  • alındığını ancak niçin örnek alındığına dair mahpusa bilgi verilmediğini ve hastaneye götürülmeden koğuşuna geri gönderildiğini aktarmıştır.”
  • Abim Silivri 2 No’lu Kapalı Cezaevinde kalmaktadır. Geçen hafta yaptığımız telefon görüşmesinde yemeklerin az verildiğini söylemişti. Abimin koronavirüs nedeniyle hayatından endişe etmekteyiz. 15 kişilik koğuşta 45 kişi kalıyorlar ve açık cezaevindeki tahliyeler nedeniyle yemekler çok sıkıntılıymış.
  • Silivri 7 No’lu Kapalı Cezaevinde mahpusların 43 kişi kaldıkları, içeride salgın olduğu, ishal, kusma gibi şikayetlerle 30 kişinin aynı sıkıntıyı yaşadığı, haftalardır kantin sorunu olduğu, sabun, şampuan ve peçete verilmediği, bulaşık deterjanıyla banyo yapıldığı, mahpusların soğuk suda yıkandığı.”
  • Silivri 7 No’lu Cezaevinde C-7 koğuşunda bir kişide Kovid-19 testi maalesef pozitif çıkmıştır. Koğuşta bulunan 45 kişi büyük risk altındadır. Koğuştaki diğer mahpuslara da bulaşmasından korkuyoruz.”
  • E; Silivri L Tipi 5 No’lu Kapalı Cezaevinde kalmaktadır. Ailesinin aktarımlarına göre; mahpusun hastalık belirtilerinden kuru öksürük şikayetleri olduğunu, kaldığı koğuşta kronik hastaların bulunduğunu, kişisel temizlik malzemelerin verilmediğini, düzenli olarak soğuk ve sıcak suyun akmadığını, koronavirüs salgınıyla ilgili yeterli bilgi verilmediğini, yemekhanelerde temizlik, hijyen ve sosyal mesafe kuralına uyulmadığını, yemeklerin sağlıksız ve kötü çıktığını, karantina odalarının bulunmadığını iletmiştir.”
  • Abim H. O. Silivri 8 No’lu Kapalı Cezaevinde kalmaktadır. Abimle konuştuğumuzda Covid-19 testi pozitif çıkan hastalar olduğu ve onlarla temas halinde olduklarını, cezaevi yönetiminden test yapılmasını talep ettiklerini ve olumsuz cevap geldiğini sö Abim koğuşlarda çok kalabalık kaldıklarını söylüyor. Abimin hayatından endişe ediyoruz. Abimin isteği üzerine test yapılmasını istiyoruz.”[8]

14 Mayıs 2020: “Eşim R.K. Silivri 8 No’lu L Tipi Cezaevi C-6 koğuşunda kalmaktaydı. Eşimin ilk Covid-19 test sonucu negatif. Bugün sabah ise E-Nabız’da 2. Bir test sonucu vardı ve sonuç pozitif çıkmış ama cezaevini aradığımda 2. bir test yapılmadığını, daha sonra yapılacağını söylediler. E-Nabız’da pozitif görünen bir test var ama cezaevi 2. test yapılmadığını söylüyor. Dün aradığımda test sonucu negatif olduğu için C-1 koğuşuna alındığını ve salı sabah yani bugün telefon görüşü olacağını söylediler fakat bugün cezaevini aradığımda pazar telefon görüşü olduğunu söylediler. Eşimden haber alamıyorum ve çok endişeliyim.”[9]

 14 Mayıs 2020: TİHV Dokümantasyon Merkezi tarafından hazırlanan, 11 Mart – 10 Mayıs 2020 tarifleri arasında Covid-19 salgını ile ilişkili hak ihlallerine yönelik rapor yayınlanmıştır. Rapora göre, uluslararası standart ve normlara gönderme yapan tüm ilke ve çağrılara karşın mahpusların aileleriyle görüşme hakkı tamamen ortadan kaldırılmış, avukat görüşmeleri kısıtlanmıştır. Ayrıca, cezaevlerinden kısıtlı olarak edinilen bilgi ve şikayetlerden de anlaşılacağı üzere BM İnsan Hakları Komiseri Michelle Bachelet’nin yaptığı uyarının aksine salgın koşullarında mahpusların, sağlığa, yiyecek ve suya, hijyen malzemelerine erişimde yaşadıkları ihlaller kötü muamele niteliğindedir.[10]

15 Mayıs 2020: Müebbet hapis cezasına çarptırılan askeri öğrenci Yasin Solmaz’ın eşi Şakire Solmaz, öğretmen M.T’nin eşi M.T ve polis memuru Ali Çiçek’in eşi B. Çiçek ile avukatlığını da yapan amcası Fatih Çiçek, bir hafta içinde yaşadıklarını anlattı. Üç isim, yakınlarının e-Nabız’dan elde ettikleri Kovid-19 teşhis raporlarını ve tahliye için mahkemelere sundukları dilekçeleri Bold Medya ile paylaştı. Yasin Solmaz’ın eşi Şakire Solmaz, “Bize vebalı gibi davranıyorlar, buraya kimse gelmiyor” dedi. 42 aydır Silivri Cezaevinde tutuklu olan Ali Çiçek de 7 Nolu Cezaevi B10 koğuşunda kalıyor. Eşi B. Çiçek, “İki gün ateşli yattı ama şu an iyiyim dedi ama koğuşun şartları çok kötü. Zaten normalde orada kalmak çok zor. Yemek sıkıntılı. Bu kadar azını hiç görmedik dedi. Kahvaltılık ürünlerini kantinden alıyorlardı, kapalı şimdi.Tuvalette sürekli sıra var. Buzdolabında bile sıra var, şartlar daha da ağırlaştı. Kalabalık ortam, biri iyi olsa, kötü olan onu etkiliyor.” dedi. 7 Nolu Cezaevi B12 koğuşunda kalanlardan biri de öğretmen M.T. 19 aydır tutuklu olan M.T’ye de 6 Mayıs’ta Kovid-19 teşhisi konuldu. Eşini 65 gündür göremediğini söyleyen M.T., 6 Mayıs’tan bugüne bir haftanın bir yıl gibi geldiğini söyleyip eşiyle yaptığı son telefon konuşmasını anlattı, “Eşimle en son iki gün önce çarşamba günü görüştük. 6 Mayıs’tan sonra bir hafta bir yıl gibi geçti. Gece 1.30’da doktora gitmiş gözüküyorsun, hayırdır dedim. Öyle bir şey yoktur dedi. Bize sadece test yapıldı. Daha gelen giden yok dedi. Her gün kontrolleri yaptıklarını göstermek için sisteme öyle işleniyor. Ateşlerini ölçülüyor sadece. Doktora götürmüyorlar ama sistemde doktora gitmiş gibi görünüyor. Orada tehlike altındalar. Hem bağışıklık sistemleri zayıfladı hem de izolasyon yok. 39 kişinin olduğu yerde nasıl izolasyon yapılacak. Kurala aykırı. İkincisi yemekleri çok sıkıntılı. İki haftadır meyve sebze hiçbir şey gelmiyor, dedi. Birkaç kaşık yemek yiyebiliyorlar. Biz burada ölüme terk edildik, gelip giden kimse yok. Başvurabildiğin yere başvur dedi.” dedi. [11]

17 Mayıs 2020: Öhd Van Şubesi ve Van Barosu Cezaevi Komisyonu ve Van Tuhay-Der olarak Van T Tipi, Van Yüksek güvenlikli, Van F Tipi Cezaevlerini bu haftaki ziyaretlerindeki gözlem ve tespitleri şu şekildedir[12]:

  • Cezaevlerinde Covid-19 salgını ile ilgili alınan önlemler kesinlikle yeterli değildir. Doluluk oranlarının fazlalığı, hijyen imkanlarından, koruyucu malzemelerden yoksunluk, sağlık ve tedavi imkanlarına erişememe sebebiyle mahpusların yaşam hakları büyük bir risk altındadır.
  • Özellikle koruyucu malzemelerin mahpuslara para ile satılması, fiyatların fahiş olması, koğuşlarda dezenfekte işlemlerinin kapsamlı ve sık sık gerçekleştirilmemesi, koğuştan çıkan mahpuslara üst araması yapılması yaşam haklarındaki riski kat be kat artırmaktadır.

 18 Mayıs 2020: Silivri 7 Nolu L Tipi Cezaevinde kalan bir kişiye de korona teşhisi konuldu. Hükümlü olarak cezaevinde bulunan Ali Kemal Ata’nın 16 Mayıs 2020’da e-Nabız’a düşen test sonucu pozitif. 29 kişiyle birlikte B8 koğuşunda kalan Ali Kemal Ata, üç yıldır tutukluydu. Eşiyle her pazartesi günü görüştüğünü söyleyen Vecide Tuba Ata, “Bugün eşimle görüşemeyeceğiz. Çünkü hastanede olduğunu biliyorum. Her gün kampüs içindeki hastaneyi arıyorum. Sadece cuma günü açtılar. Genel durumu iyi dediler ama endişeliyiz, merak içindeyiz. Durumunu e-nabızdan takip etmeye çalışıyorum.” dedi.[13]

 19 Mayıs 2020: Silivri Cezaevi’nde bulunan bir mahkum, ağır vakalar dışında tutuklu ve hükümlere test yapılmadığını öne sürüyor. Mahkum, eşi Y.S.’nin DW Türkçe’ye ilettiği telefon konuşması kaydında, eşine cezaevi koşullarını şöyle anlatıyor: “Savcılık Silivri Cezaevi’ndeki vaka sayısını 44 olarak açıkladı ama B10 koğuşunda 31, B12 koğuşunda 24 tane pozitif vaka varmış. Böyle olunca diyorlar ki bunlar, test yapılmasın, böyle kronik vaka olan olursa yani yerinden kalkamayacak gibi olan olursa ancak onlara test yapılsın. Onun haricinde test yapılmasını Bakanlık istemiyor. Yasak. Olur mu böyle şey dedik doktora ısrar edince bizi hastaneye gönderdi. 8 kişiden yedimiz pozitif çıktık. Şu an muhtemelen bizim koğuşta da hastalananlar var. Yani koğuşun tamamı hasta şu anda.” Mahkum, telefon görüşmesinde, test sonuçları belli olmadan karantina koğuşuna alındıklarını ancak içlerinden birinin testinin negatif çıktığını, bu mahkumun da muhtemelen negatif koğuşuna gönderileceğini öne sürüyor. Aynı mahkum endişesini şu sözlerle anlatıyor: “Burada zaten karantina marantina diye bir durum yok. Kendi kendine iyileşirsen iyileşirsin. Onun haricinde ölürsen öleceksin yapacak başka bir şey yok. Kimsenin umarında değilsin zaten burada. Kimsenin umrunda değilsin hem de.” 

DW Türkçe’ye konuşan tutuklu yakını Ş.S., Silivri Cezaevi’nde tutuklu olan eşinin karantina koğuşunda olduğunu ve bu koğuşta testi pozitif çıkan 39 mahpusun bir arada tutulduğunu söylüyor. Kendilerine daha önce karantina koğuşlarının 7-8 kişilik koğuşlar olduğu bilgisinin verildiğini belirten Ş.S., cezaevi müdürünün 39 kişilik rakamı avukatlarına teyit ettiğini öne sürdü. Ş.S., eşinin aktardığına göre, koğuşta 39 kişi olmasına rağmen yemeklerinin 15 kişilik verildiğini, temizlik ve hijyenin kısıtlı olduğunu, en son 3 gün önce ateşlerinin ölçüldüğünü, bunun da gardiyanlar tarafından içeriye girilmeden kapının mazgalına yaklaşılarak yapıldığını, cezaevinde yeterli gardiyan olmadığı için mahpusların seslerini duyuramadıklarını iddia etti. 

S.E., Silivri 7 no’lu cezaevinde aile telefon görüşmesi için koğuşlarından çıkan mahkumlara ilk kez 11 Mayıs’ta maske ve eldiven verildiğini iddia etti. Tutuklu yakını S.Ş. ise “Verdikleri bilgi sadece iyi. Ben eşimin hastalığını E-Nabız uygulamasından öğrendim. Şimdi ise uygulama üzerinden takip edemiyorum. Neden E-Nabız sisteminden takip edemiyoruz sorusu karşısında da artık E-Nabız sistemine kayıtların girilemeyeceğini söylediler” dedi. [14]

19 Mayıs 2020: Silivri 7 Nolu L Tipi Cezaevi’nde Kovid-19 testi pozitif çıkan tutuklu Yasin Solmaz’ın babası Ekrem Solmaz, oğluna grip ilacı verilerek koğuşa gönderildiğini paylaşarak, “39 kişi aynı koğuşta kalıyor. Bu katliamdır” dedi. Konuya ilişkin aradığımız Silivri 7 No’lu L Tipi Kapalı Cezaevi yetkilileri, bilgi veremeyeceklerini belirterek, Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı’nın aranması gerektiğini ifade etti.[15]

20 Mayıs 2020: Özgürlük İçin Hukukçular Derneği (ÖHD) Ankara Şubesi avukatları ve Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP) Iğdır Milletvekili Habip Eksik, Kayseri Bünyan Kadın Cezaevi ile Kayseri Bünyan 2 Nolu T Tipi Kapalı Cezaevi’ni ziyaret etti. Heyet, tutuklular ve cezaevi idaresiyle yaptığı görüşmeleri raporlaştırdı.ÖHD Ankara Şubesi tarafından hazırlanan raporda, Kayseri Bünyan Kadın Kapalı Cezaevi’nde, 5 kadın tutuklu ile görüşme gerçekleştirildiği bilgisi verildi. Raporda, 3 kişinin muayene ardından karantinaya alındığı ancak koronavirüs testi yapılmadığı aktarıldı, bir tutuklunun öksürük ve boğaz kuruluğu şikayetlerinin devam ettiği bilgisi de yer aldı.[16]

20 Mayıs 2020: “Silivri cezaevindeki kardeşime salgın belirtilerinin 10. gününde test yapıldı. Testi pozitif çıktı. İlaç tedavisinin uygulandığını söyleyen kardeşim, kalabalık koğuşlarda kaldıklarını ifade etti. Yemeklerin sorunlu olduğunu ve kendi temizliklerini de kendilerinin yaptıklarını aktardı. Bu şartlarda kardeşimin cezaevinde kalamayacağına dair cezaevi yönetimine başvuruda bulunduk ancak olumlu bir dönüş yok.” Silivri cezaevinde koronavirüs testi pozitif çıkan tutuklu Hüseyin Kaçan’ın ağabeyi Barış Kaçan’a ait bu ifadeler. 23 aydır Silivri cezaevinde olan Hüseyin Kaçan aynı zamanda mide ağrıları ve dizlerinde sorunlar yaşayan bir tutuklu. Ağabeyinin aktarımına göre normal şartlarda bile cezaevi koşulları kendisini zorluyor, sık sık ağrılar yaşıyor ve hastalanıyor. Covid-19 semptomlarının giderek daha çok kendisini hissettirmesiyle 10. günde yapılan test sonucu hasta olduğunu öğrenmiş. Aslında belirtiler başladığı andan itibaren o ve diğer tutuklular test talepleri için cezaevi yönetimine başvurular yapmış ama reddedilmiş.

 Yine Silivri 7 No’lu cezaevinde tutuklu olan Burak Çelen’in de bir hafta önce yapılan Covid-19 testi pozitif çıktı. E-Nabız sisteminden eşi Burak Çelen’in koronavirüse yakalandığını öğrenen Sevda Çelen, avukatı aracılığıyla eşinin hastanede tedavi altına alınmasını talep edince eşi 7 Mayıs’ta hastaneye kaldırıldı. Sevda Çelen, eşinin hastanede bir günlük müşahade altına alınmasının ardından beş günlük ilaç tedavisi verilerek, cezaevinin karantina koğuşuna gönderildiğini söyledi. Sevda Çelen, en son yaptığı telefon görüşmesinde ise eşinden cezaevi koşullarının iyi olmadığını öğrendi. 39 kişilik karantina koğuşunda bulunan Burak Çelen’in aktardıklarına göre koğuşlara verilen yemek miktarı 15 kişilik ve kantin kapalı. Ateş ölçümlerinin düzenli yapılmadığı, beş günlük ilaç tedavisinden sonra test yapılmadığı ve temiz havanın olmadığı ve hijyen sorunları da Covid-19 hastası tutuklu Burak Çelen’in aktardıkları arasında.

 Euronews’in ulaştığı koronavirüs hastası Yasin Solmaz’ın avukatı Cevriye Aydın ise bu durumun insan hakları ihlali olduğuna dikkat çekiyor. Müvekkilinin sağlıklı koşullarda olmadığını söyleyen avukat Aydın, yetkililerin pandemi sürecinde cezaevindekiler için geçici çözümler sunmaları gerektiğine dikkat çekiyor: ”Hangi görüşten, inançtan olursa olsun cezaevinde yaşayan herkes devletin güvencesi altındadır. Öncelikle yaşam hakkının devlet tarafından güvence altına alınması söz konusudur. Aksi takdirde devlet sorumlu olur. Öncelik burada tutukluların yaşam hakkının güvence altına alınmasıdır. Ben o tutukluların yaşam hakkı için panik halindeyim. Dışarıda da Covid-19’dan insanlar ölüyor, ama dışarıda olunca kendi iradesi ile bulaşı alması söz konusu. Ancak bu cezaevinde olunca bu tamamen devletin, hükümetin, iktidarın siyasi ve hukuki her türlü sorumluluğu altında gerçekleşen bir olaydır.”[17]

Resmi Açıklamalar

Bahsi geçen beyanlarda yer alan hususlar, Türkiye Hükümeti ve kamu görevlilerinin, küresel Koronavirüs salgını sürecinde gerekli tedbirleri almak bir yana, sorumluluğu altındaki kişilerin yaşamlarını ve sağlıklarını korumaları için zorunlu temel ihtiyaçlarının ve hastalığın bulaşmasını önlemek için gerekli fiziksel koşulların dahi karşılanmadığını, ortaçağ karanlığındaki uygulamaların benzeri “toplu tecrit” sebebiyle cezaevlerinde toplu ölümlere sebep olunabileceğini açıkça ortaya koymaktadır.

Cezaevlerinde tespit edilen koronavirus vakalarına dair basına yansıyan resmi açıklamalara ilişkin özet içerikler aşağıda yer almaktadır:

08 Nisan 2020: Bafra Cezaevi’nde şeker hastası olduğu öğrenilen Mehmet Yeter adlı bir hükümlünün geçtiğimiz günlerde bacağı kesilerek yeniden cezaevine gönderildiği ve üç gün sonra Covid-19 hastalığı nedeniyle yaşamını yitirdiği iddia edildi. Bafra Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı’nın,  Mehmet Yeter’in Covid-19 hastalığı nedeniyle yaşamını yitirmediğine ilişkin açıklamasına rağmen, Mehmet Yeter’in oğlu olduğunu söyleyen Ferhat Yeter adlı kullanıcı, sosyal medya hesabından cumhuriyet savcılığına ait olduğu ileri sürülen yazı ile babası Mehmet Yeter’in cenaze işlemlerinin yazıldığı belgeleri paylaştı.

20 Nisan 2020: İzmir Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı, Buca Kapalı Ceza İnfaz Kurumu’ndaki tutuklu H.A.’ya yapılan yeni tip koronavirüs testinin pozitif çıktığını açıkladı.

 22 Nisan 2020: İzmir Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı, Buca Kapalı Ceza İnfaz Kurumunda korona virüsü testi pozitif çıkan ilk vakanın ardından 64 tutuklu ve hükümlünün daha testinin pozitif çıktığı bildirdi.

 

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[1]    https://tr.euronews.com/2020/05/20/silivri-cezaevinde-covid-19-vakalar-endiseli-aileler-yetkililerden-gecici-tahliyeler-bekli

[2]    https://twitter.com/OhdVan/status/1261980171118301184

[3]    https://boldmedya.com/2020/05/18/silivride-bir-kisiye-daha-kovid-19-teshisi-konuldu/

[4]    https://www.dw.com/tr/cezaevlerinde-salgına-karşı-tedbirler-yetersiz-mi/a-53502249

[5]    http://mezopotamyaajansi22.com/tum-haberler/content/view/97218

[6]    https://artigercek.com/haberler/karantinaya-alinan-3-tutukluya-test-yapilmadi

[7]    http://aktifhaber.com/gundem/43-kisilik-kogusta-30-kisi-hasta-bulasik-deterjani-ve-soguk-su-ile-banyo-yapiyorlar-h145301.html

[8]    https://tihv.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/TürkiyeCovidHakİhlalleriSON.pdf

[9]    https://www.boldmedya.com/2020/05/15/silivri-karantinasindaki-3-isim-konustu-bu-son-gorusmemiz-olabilir-bize-vebali-gibi-davraniyorlar/

 [10]    https://www.evrensel.net/haber/404769/silivri-cezaevinde-7-kisilik-kogusta-45-kisi-kalmaya-devam-ediyor

[11]    https://artigercek.com/haberler/silivri-cezaevi-nde-korona-c-7-kogusu-aciklandi-ya-b-12

[12]    https://twitter.com/gergerliogluof

[13]    https://kronos34.news/tr/gergerlioglu-silivri-cezaevinde-koronavirus-salgini-hizla-yayiliyor/

[14]    https://kronos34.news/tr/mahkum-yakinlari-silivride-maske-ve-eldiven-ilk-kez-dun-verildi/

[15]    https://boldmedya.com/2020/05/14/korona-risk-grubundaki-tutuklu-gazeteci-cetin-ciftcinin-testi-pozitif-cikti/

[16]    https://www.hrw.org/tr/news/2020/04/03/340344

[17]    https://twitter.com/cezaeviihlaller/status/1258461779543416834

 

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THE EROSION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS IN TURKEY

THE EROSION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS IN TURKEY

April 2020 / (40 Pages)

In Turkey, legal conflicts that arise out of the State’s intervention in the right to property are hardly a new problem.
Between 1959 and 2018, the ECtHR rendered 3128 judgments against Turkey, establishing that there had been a rights violation. Of those judgments, 660 (21%) established a breach of the right to property. Statistics on the Turkish Constitutional Court’s (TCC) judgments relating to the right to property are more alarming; 31% (2454 of 8036 judgments) of all judgments rendered within individual application procedure established a breach of the right to property.
Since 2015, the Turkish Government has been using the Criminal Peace Judgeships (CPJ) and Turkey’s notorious Anti-Terrorism provision (Art. 314, Turkish Penal Code) to take over properties belonging to dissidents.
In this report, Leighann Spencer and Ali Yildiz document the Turkish Government’s intervention into the right to property, analyze its legality under international and national law, and conclude with recommendations.… Read More

 

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BORN AND RAISED IN PRISON: TURKEY’S CAPTIVE CHILDREN

International human rights standards are increasingly understood to require special and improved care for women prisoners with children. Pregnant women, women in the post-partum phase of childbirth, and crucially, newborns, require access to intensive and routine medical services and highest attainable prison standards. Imprisoned women with children face distinct challenges that other prisoners may not experience while they serve their sentences. In international human rights terms, rights of women with children fall under three categories and are protected by instruments of international law which enumerate the rights of prisoners, women, and mothers. In the Turkish Republic, governed by President Recep T. Erdogan and Justice and Development Party (AKP), the treatment of women prisoners and their children has deteriorated since 2016, the year during which Turkey experienced a general shift towards authoritarianism. At the time of this publication, the first quarter of 2020, the Turkish government’s treatment of women prisoners and their children falls radically short of standards detailed by landmark instruments put forth by the United Nations and adopted by the international community. Developments pertaining to the rights of women and children signal the continued deterioration of these rights under the current government without legitimate efforts to improve conditions by Turkish authorities.

This report is based on desk research and interviews with former prisoners conducted mainly via telephone and skype in January to March 2020. It was not possible to interview prisoners who remain behind bars and others who continue to live in Turkey as they fear government retribution for sharing their stories. The report proceeds by analyzing the current condition of prisons in Turkey as they pertain to pregnant women and women with dependent children. The analysis provides a succinct overview of the ongoing violations in Turkish prisons by comparing and contrasting current practices of the Turkish government with the universally recognized and widely ratified United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-Custodial Measures for Women Offenders (Bangkok Rules). The analysis is composed of part commentary and part interview data. The details of each violation are interwoven directly into the comments to provide a vivid and relatable description of victims’ experiences. Volunteer interviewers for Advocates of Silenced Turkey conducted telephonic interviews with victims whose identities have been anonymized for this report. While some of these women have agreed for AST to publicize their identity, we have currently chosen to keep all data anonymous in order to protect the families of victims who continue to live in Turkey and may face persecution as a direct result of this publication. All interviews have been audio recorded with permission, transcribed, and translated with special attention paid to preserving the authenticity of the information shared by interviewees. Volunteers who conducted interviews utilized an organic conversational tone throughout each meeting, however, they were appropriately trained to effectively extract certain data from each woman. All questions used by interviewers were distilled from relevant international human rights instruments. The Tokyo Rules and Bangkok Rules in particular have played a critical role in shaping and directing the language and content of the questionnaire.

In the second and final part of the report, AST has created a catalog of all victims whose information has been made available through open-source research platforms. The desk research conducted by our associates has mainly relied on social media platforms, especially Twitter, which remain as final standing sources of real news in the Republic of Turkey. In a strictly controlled media environment, news regarding victims of the presiding government receives little to no attention. Thus, our cataloging efforts rely on publicly available information often volunteered by victims or close friends and relatives of victims on social media platforms. The information contained in the catalog section of this report will continue to be updated with increasingly more reliable data and sources as they become available over time.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Advocates of Silenced Turkey urges conscientious objectors, relevant human rights organizations, and UN special rapporteurs to encourage the government of Turkey to implement four major recommendations related to improving the living conditions of captive mothers and babies, by:

 Urging the Turkish government to effective immediately revise its policy of imprisonment towards pregnant women and women with dependent children. Non-custodial sentences shall be preferred where possible and appropriate, especially when prison conditions pose a threat to the lives of mothers and children.

 Urging the Turkish Ministry of Justice to eliminate excessive overcrowding in prison dormitories, dedicate increased resources to the physical and mental wellbeing of women and children, provide maternity support before and after birth, and ensure access to adequately nutritional food.

 Encouraging independent organizations to organize and promote transparent research on the number of children affected by their mothers’ confrontation with the criminal justice system in order to contribute to policy formulation and program development, taking into account the best interests of the children.

 Urging Turkish authorities to liaise with international criminal justice experts to develop better institutional safeguards & provide training to prison administrators and staff in order to prepare them to respond correctly to the day-to-day needs of imprisoned mothers and children.

 

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KEY HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN TURKEY SINCE THE SO-CALLED COUP ATTEMPT

Following the so-called coup attempt on the 15th of July 2016, the Turkish government under the authoritarian leadership of Recep Tayyip Erdogan has taken a wave of oppressive actions against not only the alleged coup plotters but also those that are perceived as critics of the regime. Currently, as part of Turkey’s post-coup crackdown, more than 130,000 people including judges, academics, teachers, journalists, police and military officers, and other public servants have been dismissed from their jobs. In correlation, more than 217,000 have been detained and 160,000 have been arrested. Amnesty International reports that detainees were “being held arbitrarily” with “no evidence establishing reasonable suspicion of criminal behavior” and that “only a tiny minority of them were accused of taking part in the actual events of the attempted coup”.

Amid the massive crackdown of hundreds of thousands of dissidents, human rights organizations and the U.N. Human Rights Council have noted that human rights are violated on a large scale by the Turkish government. Arbitrary killings, suspicious deaths of people in custody, forced disappearances, tortures, ill-treatments, injustice, and threats – mostly against the followers of the Gulen Movement, Kurds, and the Leftists – have been reported widespread during this large-scale witch-hunt.

As people continue to be arrested and many more tortured and abducted, the present brief of Advocates of Silenced Turkey (AST) highlights some of the key human rights concerns that have taken place in Turkey during this on-going period.

●  UNPRECEDENTED SCALE OF DISMISSALS: 

More than 130,000 public servants, with their names attached in lists to emergency orders, were dismissed by emergency decrees. These public servants included over 4,463 judges and prosecutors, 6,021 academics, 6,000 health-care professionals, 33,500 teachers, and 44,500 police and military officers. Not only were people dismissed arbitrarily but also banned permanently from working in the public sector – many were even banned to practice their profession.

  • COLLAPSE OF JUDICIARY SYSTEM:

With approximately 4,463 judges and prosecutors (including two judges from the Turkey’s highest court) dismissed permanently, over one-fifth of Turkey’s judiciary has been removed. Of those dismissed, at least 2,200 were jailed with their assets frozen due to their alleged links to the Gulen movement. Consequently, the climate of fear paralyzed the judges and prosecutors who still have their positions. The fear combined with the heavy government influence in the court system led to the collapse of the judiciary system and the deterioration of human rights in the country. As a result, Turkey ranked 109 out of 126 countries in 2019 on the rule of law index of the World Justice Project.

  • VICTIMIZATION OF LAWYERS:

Lawyers are among the many groups affected by the post-coup crackdown in Turkey. They were unlawfully associated with their clients’ alleged crimes. Human Rights Watch (HRW) reported that many lawyers were targeted with criminal investigations with little or no evidence. According to the Arrested Lawyers Initiative, over 1,500 lawyers were persecuted over the past three years including 14 lawyers who were presidents of provincial bar associations – of those persecuted lawyers, one third remained imprisoned before and during their trials, and 274 were convicted of membership of armed terrorist organizations and sentenced to long prison sentences. Furthermore, approximately 34 bar associations were shut down by presidential decree with alleged affiliations to terrorist organizations.

  • PERSECUTION OF ACADEMICS:

Following the coup attempt, 3,003 private schools and 15 universities linked to the Gülen movement were closed by a presidential decree. Eventually resulting in the displacement of over 60,000 students across the country. Over 8,500 academics reportedly lost their jobs either due to direct dismissals or university closures since September 2016 – and many of them were imprisoned. Large-scale dismissals of academics and teachers significantly damaged the education sector thus diminished the right to education.

  • BOOKS DESTROYED:

Turkey’s education minister Ziya Selçuk announced last week that 301,878 books had been destroyed as the government cracks down on anything linked to Fethullah Gülen. Turkish newspaper BirGün reported that 1.8m textbooks had been destroyed and reprinted for containing the “objectionable” word Pennsylvania, which is where Gülen lives.

  • THE MEDIA PURGE FOLLOWING THE ATTEMPTED COUP: 

In the aftermath of the failed coup, the government closed down 200 media outlets – including 53 newspapers, 37 radio stations, 34 TV channels, 29 publishing houses, 20 magazines, and six news agencies – with accused links to the Gulen movement, Kurdish opposition, or Leftists groups. Consequently, a total of 2,308 media workers and journalists have lost their jobs. The government canceled hundreds of press accreditations and revoked passports of an unknown number of journalists and their family members to ban them from traveling abroad. In addition, the government imprisoned a record-breaking number of journalists in the wake of the coup attempt – with that, Turkey became the world’s largest prison for journalists. The Platform for Independent Journalism (P24) reported that at least 126 journalists and media workers were in prison in Turkey as of October 2019 – among them, many were put in long solitary confinement. 

The absence of freedom of expression is not only a recurring problem for journalists but for citizens as well. In 2018, the Ministry of Interior reported that more than 7,000 individuals were detained for their social media posts after investigating 631,233 digital materials. In relation to the censorships and content restrictions in the country, Wikipedia has been blocked in Turkey since April of 2017. Currently, out of the 180 countries, Turkey ranks 157th on the Press Freedom Index of Reporters Without Borders and is listed among ‘not free’ countries by the Freedom House.

  • CRACKDOWN ON HEALTH CARE SECTOR:

Turkish government has shut down 14 hospitals and 36 medical centers after the coup attempt on the pretext of alleged ties to the Gülen movement. Therefore, an estimated 21,000 health care professionals were laid off – including doctors, academics, nurses, midwives, and other hospital staff. Of those, 5,261 are medical doctors and academics who specialize in the medical sciences. The figures of how many health care professionals have been detained, arrested or currently in prison are estimated in the thousands. Given the longstanding issue of hospital and staff shortages in the country, the dismissals of health care professionals and the closure of hospitals left many patients in despair of medical care.

  • PRISON CONDITIONS:

With the persecution of tens of thousands of critics, the current population in Turkish prisons is 4-5 times higher than the normal capacity – it has increased from 171,267 inmates in 2015 to 260,144 in 2018. Given the capacity of 211,766, inmates are forced to remain in overcrowded cells. In order to free up space for more political prisoners, the government released nearly 34,000 convicts from prisons. The inadequate provision of health care to prisoners also remains a serious problem. Officially reported by the Ministry of Justice Prison and Correctional Facilities, there were 271 doctors serving nearly a quarter-million of the prison population – of whom, only eight were full-time. Insufficient access to freshwater, proper heating, ventilation, and lighting are other concerns for prison conditions. There are 62,669 political prisoners, 4,000 of them being women and 780 of them being children.

  • TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT:

Despite the government’s zero-tolerance claim for torture policy, human rights groups have reported widespread and systematic use of torture and ill-treatment in police custody following the coup-attempt – including severe beatings, threats of sexual assault and actual sexual assault, electric shocks, waterboarding, sleep deprivation, stress positions, long solitary confinement, and depriving of food and water. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) stated acts of torture and ill-treatment aimed “at extracting confessions or forcing detainees to denounce other Individuals” in its report on Turkey in 2017. The Human Rights Association (HRA) reported that the number of incidents where prisoners were subjected to torture and ill-treatment in detention centers and prisons was 2,178 in 2016, 2,415 in 2017, and 1,505 in 2018. The Stockholm Center for Freedom (SCF) reported a total of 126 suspicious deaths and suicides since the coup attempt – most of those occurred in detention centers and prisons, seemingly a direct result of torture and ill-treatment.

  • ABDUCTIONS AND ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCES:

In the aftermath of the coup attempt, forced disappearances made a comeback in Turkey. Opposing politicians and respected human rights groups claimed at least 128 abductions or possible enforced disappearances of individuals. Most of the victims were identified as dismissed public servants with alleged ties to the Gulen movement or critics of the government. Allegedly, victims were abducted outside detention facilities and illegally questioned and tortured by Turkey’s intelligence agency. Moreover, Turkey’s intelligence agency reportedly abducted over more than 100 alleged Gulen affiliates from 18 countries – individuals often deported illegally – against the universal conventions – by cooperative governments without due process.

  • WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN PRISON:

The prison conditions for women and children are exceedingly alarming. According to the Justice Ministry, as of 2017, nearly 10,000 women and 3,000 children under 18 are in Turkey’s prisons. The inhumane prison conditions also hold weight in women prisons. They face additional issues of the male security staff frequently obstructing their privacy during hospital visits, oftentimes leading to an incomplete examination.  Among the prisoners, there are more than 30 pregnant women or women who just gave birth and 780 children under 6 years old imprisoned along with their mothers – including 149 infants under 1-year-old. Pregnant women are forced to stay with other inmates in overcrowded cells, also denied access to proper prenatal care – posing serious risks to their well-being. Likewise, mothers with children are also forced to share a cell with inmates.

Even when prison authorities are willing to let the child see a doctor, they do not allow mothers to accompany them. Children have to sleep in the same bed with their mothers and are not assigned a cradle or a separate bed.

The state pays $2 a day per prisoner for food. Since children are not technically incarcerated, they are not allotted any daily food rations and share their mother’s meals.

More than %80 of children in jail with their mothers do not receive any education.

Only %18 receive kindergarten or nursery services, but even then, there is a shortage of educational materials.

  • RESTRICTIONS ON RIGHT TO TRAVEL:

Another unlawful activity being pursued during this period is revoking the passports of government critics with perceived affiliations to the Gulen movement, Kurdish opposition, Leftists groups and their family members. On this ground, the Turkish government put restrictions on approximately 155,000 passports, reported by the SCF. Since their passports are restricted, many people, with the fear of persecution, use smuggler routes to flee from the country. Unfortunately, many died in the Evros River and the Aegean Sea. Turkey revoking its citizens’ passports also causes travel struggles for those across the world.

  • SEIZURE OF DISSIDENTS’ ASSETS:

The Turkish government abuses laws to seize assets of its critics. As of March 2018, the government had seized the assets of approximately 1,124 businesses and 127 individuals. According to the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund of Turkey, the net worth of the seized assets is an estimated $32.24 billion since the 2016 coup attempt. Moreover, in most cases, the government freezes the assets of those on trial, financially crippling them and their families.

SOURCES

  1. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/07/turkey-independent-monitors-must-be-allowed-to-access-detainees-amid-torture-allegations/ https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/turkey/report-turkey/
  2. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/turkey/

          https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/TR/2018-03-19_Second_OHCHR_Turkey_Report.pdf

  1. https://turkeypurge.com/turkey-jails-2431-judges-prosecutors-dismisses-4424-to-date-top-court
  2. https://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/documents/ROLI-2019-Reduced.pdf
  3. https://silencedturkey.org/lawyers-on-trial-abusive-prosecutions-and-erosion-of-fair-trial-rights-in-turkey-2

         https://arrestedlawyers.org/2019/09/01/new-report-mass-prosecution-of-lawyers-in-turkey/

  1. http://silencedturkey.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/AcademicsAtRisk.pdf
  2. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/aug/06/turkish-government-destroys-more-than-300000-books
  3. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/11/brothers-critical-turkish-regime-arrested-after-tv-programme

         https://tr.euronews.com/2019/07/12/verilerle-15-temmuz-sonras-ve-ohal-sureci

  1. https://expressioninterrupted.com/freedom-of-expression-and-the-press-in-turkey-211/
  2. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/turkey/
  3. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=27610

          https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/turkey-coup-attempt-latest-releases-almost-34000-prisoners-in-amnesty-amid-international-alarm-over-a7221451.html

  1. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/turkey/
  2. https://www.ihd.org.tr/sample-page-2/
  1. https://stockholmcf.org/suspicious-deaths-and-suicides-in-turkey-updated-list/
  2. https://correctiv.org/en/top-stories-en/2018/12/06/black-sites/
  3. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=27610

         https://7dnews.com/news/inmates-facing-poor-living-conditions-and-death-in-turkish-prisons

  1. https://stockholmcf.org/turkeys-dismissed-academics-want-their-passports-back-after-state-of-emergency-lifted/
  2. https://twitter.com/platformpj/status/1234421262052732928/photo/1

         http://www.platformpj.org/report-the-erosion-of-property-rights-in-turkey/

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Human Rights Digest: January 2020 Articles

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TURKEY: MONTHLY HUMAN RIGHTS DIGEST January 2020

  1. A Mother’s Plea for Help: The Tumor is Spreading, My Daughter is Sick

On February 27, 2018, Sevgi Sezer, a critically-ill primary school teacher, was imprisoned for 7 years and 6 months due to her affiliation with the Hizmet Movement. After nearly two years, Sezer continues to suffer from a malicious tumor on her back while forcedly sharing an overcrowded prison cell with 16 other women prisoners. Sezer was denied medical attention for a long time despite making many requests while the tumor on her back, a constantly growing vascular malformation, went undiagnosed for 9 months. Sezer’s deprivation of medical assistance led to the painful growth of the tumor, causing her immense suffering and severely limiting her mobility. The appeals court continues to stall action on Sezer’s case as she suffers despite concrete medical evidence that warrants close medical attention and release from imprisonment. Teacher Sezer’s mother made an emotional appeal to authorities: “I could not hug my daughter in my last visit because the tumor spread all over her back. I am calling government officials to take action; my daughter is sick, in pain. She needs treatment.”

  1. 70 Turkish Air Force Academy Cadets Receive Life Sentence for “Courtroom Behavior”

On January 3, 2020, the 24th Istanbul High Criminal Court sentenced 70 Turkish Air Force Academy Students, aged 18-23, to aggravated life imprisonment. The Turkish Court charged all 70 of the cadets with violating the constitution, merging their cases under the overarching July 15 Coup Attempt trials. While the cadets’ involvement in the coup attempt has not been evidenced, the court found the cadets guilty of intent to aid and abet the coup attempt. Moreover, the presiding judge changed his original sentencing to a lifetime sentence and defended his decision by blaming the alleged contrarian behavior of the defendants during court proceedings. While the cadets can appeal the court order, the hysteria revolving around the July 15 failed coup attempt has effectively eliminated all avenues of justice and exoneration.

  1. Philanthropist Melek Ipek, “Angel Mom”, Sentenced for Hizmet Affiliation

On January 9, 2020, the 24th Ankara High Criminal Court sentenced Melek Ipek and her son Cafer Ipek to 12 and 79 years of imprisonment, respectively. The overarching case brought against billionaire Akin Ipek and the Ipek Family Estate found all family members guilty for providing financial support to the charity activities of the Hizmet Movement. Since five family members had escaped Turkey due to the undue political and judicial process, the Ankara court put their cases on hold while charging Melek Ipek with “opposition to tax law”, a bogus charge that, as it now appears, has been included to target the Ipek family’s vast financial estate. The court ordered for the seizure of all financial assets, dividends, and shares of all Ipek family members who hold stock in the Ipek Holding Company.

  1. Another Victim of the Hysteria: Left-Leaning Sports Reporter Fired from Job

On January 8, 2020, Fatma Karaagac, a left-leaning former sports reporter for Haberturk TV, gave an interview regarding her termination. In her remarks, Karaagac complained that she was fired for international political reasons while the company firing her blamed her alleged affiliation with the Hizmet Movement. Karaagac was neither sued or summoned to court. The prosecutorial hysteria directed against the Hizmet Movement continues to ransack the lives of thousands of people. The unquestioned vilification of the Hizmet Movement by the Turkish government allows for opportunists and people with personal vendettas to accuse anyone and any time of Hizmet affiliation to cause serious damage to their lives. Fatma Karaagac is a recent and prime example.

  1. Former Teacher from Adana Sentenced 7.5 Years for Teacher’s Union Membership

On January 8, 2020, the Adana 12th Heavy Criminal Court found Mehmet Onuk guilty and sentenced him for 7 years and 6 months. According to the court order, Mr. Onuk’s alleged crimes consist of using ByLock, a mobile chat application, holding religious study circles in his home, and being a member of a government-sanctioned worker’s union. Mehmet Onuk, like countless others, was charged for these crimes as part of the ongoing persecution campaign against the Hizmet Movement.


 

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Human Rights Violations in Turkey December, 2019

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TURKEY: MONTHLY HUMAN RIGHTS DIGEST

A TEACHER’S FINAL WORDS: THEY ARE KILLING PEOPLE

On December 20, 2019, Engin Erol (41) passed away from cancer after three years of inhumane imprisonment in Artvin and Erzurum prisons. Erol, a teacher, husband, and father of three, began experiencing severe health problems within three months of imprisonment and requested proper medical care from the Turkish courts. The prosecutor on the case ignored more than 20 appeals from Erol, delaying his diagnosis for months, and denying him access to medicine as his condition rapidly progressed to its end-stage. He was kept in Erzurum, one of the coldest cities in Turkey, during winter months while “the new warden turned the heat off” for months despite the below-freezing temperature. Erol pleaded for help in his final words: “They are killing people in there. There are two people suffering from my condition. Pray for them.”¹

MOTHER & 7-YEAR OLD CHILD WITH DOWN SYNDROME SENTENCED FOR HIZMET MOVEMENT AFFILIATION

Nuran Dilber and her daughter Nalan (7) have been sent to a İstanbul prison over their alleged links to the Hizmet Movement. Nalan, a child with down syndrome, requires special medical and educational attention. Prior to her arrest, Nalan had just begun to learn how to read and write, bathroom etiquette, and social interaction. Left with no one else to take care of her, Nalan continues to be imprisoned along with her mother.
Nalan continues to be imprisoned along with her mother. Their story came to fore thanks to HDP Parliamentarian Omer Faruk Gergerlioglu, who voiced his opposition to the arbitrary arrests and emphasized the gravity of the trauma that Nalan has been through. Gergerlioglu criticized the detention of the Dilber family with strong words: “Where is your conscience?” ²

A BABY IN PRISON: MUAZ’S FIRST BIRTHDAY

On December 7th, 2018, only 60 days after giving birth to her baby, Nurhan Erdal Bahadir (38) was arrested as part of Turkey’s routine imprisonment of all dissidents and put in Tarsus Women’s Prison. Bahadir’s baby, Muaz, suffers from a genetic heart condition and a vision problem that caused permanent damage to the alignment of his eyes. The young mother’s request for a pair of glasses as well as an instant pot for her child’s health was denied for months while Muaz received neither medical care nor supplemental baby food during the first year of his life. Forced to sleep in a ward with 15 other women, Bahadir was only given a bunk bed to sleep with Muaz. When Muaz fell off the bed, the mother’s plea for help was met with a recommendation from prison guards to “tie the baby’s foot to the bed.” During her postpartum period, Mrs. Bahadir and Baby Muaz faced harsh winter conditions without proper heating and rationed food portions, compounding the cruelty of the prison conditions. In December 2019, Muaz celebrated his first birthday behind bars.³

MEMBERS OF FLORYA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE SENTENCED: 26 BUSINESSMEN BEHIND BARS

On December 27, 2019, the Istanbul 23rd High Criminal Court tried 26 business people for their official membership to Florya Chamber of Commerce, a local organization in Istanbul. The court sentenced nine defendants to 7 years and six months, and 14 defendants to 6 years and three months of prison time for “their affiliation with the Hizmet Movement. While the court refused to provide an explanation for their reasoning, the defendants’ appeals made no difference in the court’s sentencing decision⁵.

ANOTHER VICTIM OF THE HYSTERIA: CHP MAYOR IN PRISON FOR FORMER ROLE

On December 12th, 2019, Ibrahim Burak Oguz, a member of the main opposition party in Turkey, was found guilty for his alleged association with the Hizmet Movement because of his former role on the executive board of the Izmir Young Entrepreneurs Association (IGID). Oguz’s arrest came only six months after his electoral victory on March 21st, where he beat the leading party’s candidate and became the Mayor of Urla. While no specific charges have been leveled against Oguz, he has been sent to prison in Izmir for his alleged links⁴.

References:

1- https://magduriyetler2.blogspot.com/2019/12/kanserden-olen-tutukluerolun-son.html
2- https://magduriyetler2.blogspot.com/2019/12/tutsak-bebek-muaznannesinden-mektup.html
3- https://turkeypurge.com/mother-7-year-old-daughter-with-downsyndrome-sent-to-prison-on-terror-charges-report
4- https://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/chpli-belediye-baskani-fetouyeliginden-tutuklandi
5- aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/fetonun-is-dunyasi-yapilanmasi-davasindakarar/1685891#


 

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AST REPORT 2018-2019

WORDS FROM THE ADVOCATES

When the Turkish President declared in an infamous speech that “old Turkey no longer exists. This Turkey is new Turkey”, the story of Turkish authoritarianism had once and for all taken on a new character. Since July of 2016, the Turkish government has improperly imprisoned 130,214 homemakers, teachers, NGO workers, academics, judges, prosecutors, and journalists.

We are a group of lawyers, judges, academics, journalists, and hundreds of activists who cherish democratic ideals and universal human rights. We are prisoners of conscience wanted by the Erdogan’s regime, relatives of political prisoners, and victims who have lost their jobs, property, and family members to the current administration which has been described as a Mafia State. We are the Advocates of Silenced Turkey. We, the Advocates, have made it our mission to champion the rights of Silenced Turkey until universal human rights and democratic governance are established and sustained as the utmost priorities of the Republic of Turkey.

AST GIVES A VOICE TO THE VOICELESS…

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SYSTEMATIC TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT IN TURKEY

Aftermath of the Coup Attempt of 15 July 2016

In Turkey, especially after the coup attempt on July 15, 2016, there have been mass arrests and detentions. Suleyman Soylu, Minister for Internal Affairs, has stated that 511,000 individuals have been taken into custody as of March 2019, on the grounds of their relationship with the Gulen Movement. Up until today, more than 100,000 individuals have been jailed. It has been confirmed that prisoners and detainees have been under systematic torture and ill-treatment, more severely during the state of emergency. Some of the cases are documented and reported by local and national human rights organizations, related videos and photos of some cases have received wide media coverage; and some cases have come to light by means of the statements of victims during the ongoing trials, which are consistent with their medical reports.

According to the research conducted by the AST, 93 prisoners have lost their lives due to torture, ill-treatment, and negligence. Moreover, another 11 individuals have lost their lives during the arrest procedure and interrogation under torture. AST has recorded all these cases in this report and put 10 cases under the scope by including the evidence of torture.

GOKHAN ACIKKOLLU DIED AFTER 13 DAYS OF TORTURE IN POLICE CUSTODY

Gokhan Acikkollu, a teacher, after he was taken into custody with the accusation of attempting a coup and due to his relationship with the Gulen Movement, died in İstanbul Police Headquarters on August 5, 2016, after 13 days of torture. During the routine health controls, teacher Gokhan Acikkollu managed to record what he has lived through, day by day. He made sure that the photos of the torture marks were taken. Reports of the forensic medicine experts confirmed that his death was due to torture. During doctor visits, Acikkollu had stated that he was afraid of dying, that his head was smashed against walls, kicked while down on the floor, slapped and punched hundreds of times, and that he was feeling a never-ending pain in ribs. The autopsy made after his death detected a fracture in his rib and beating marks.

This report has the torture testimonies of the teacher’s prison mates and the forensic medicine expert. Public prosecution office, before conducting any investigation,  declared that police were not negligent in his death. After the reports of the human rights organizations and upon the appeal of his family, the prosecution office had initiated an investigation. However, the statements of the witnesses were not taken; the entire video footage in the İstanbul Police Headquarters Counter-Terrorism Branch, the place of death, were not examined, and finally, the case was closed, noting that there was no need to file a lawsuit. The court found the raised objection justified and ordered an investigation to be opened; however, the prosecution office has not taken any action yet.

Other than the ones detected in the official detention centers and prisons, more severe and long-dated crimes of torture have been identified, which are committed in the illegal interrogation centers by the public officials of the government. In our report, four torture victims, who were abducted by MIT, narrate the months-long inhuman treatment in the secret and illegal detention centers.

A.G. (whose name is being withheld by the reporter for security reasons) who was abducted to the MIT Yenimahalle campus, putting sack over his head and beating him, has explained how he was strapped to a strappado while being subjected to electric shock, and beaten with whips, sticks, and batons; he further told about the rape attempts. A.G., who has stayed in a dark cell of 4.5 m2 for several weeks, indicated that, especially during the first 20 days, he was actively exposed to similar physical torture methods every single day. A.G., who was accused of being a member of the Gulen Movement, has explained that he was kept hungry and thirsty, and he was inflicted on psychological torture methods such as swearing, insulting, and threatening with his family members.

“A CASE OF INTESTINAL TEAR DUE  PLACING A BATON INSIDE THE RECTUM”

A.G. has stated that several individuals in the torture center had intestinal tear due placing baton inside the victim’s rectum, forcing to sit on an artificial penis; he has further stated that they had attempted to rape him several times. A.G. told that in his cell, he was constantly hearing the screams of the other torture victims and the laughter of the torturers; according to A.G., a typical torture session continued an average of 4-5 hours. He had further stated that in every cell, security, cameras were installed, and they were deprived of sleep by being exposed continuously to directives.

He claimed that an official from the Office of the Presidency came to the interrogation center and was briefed by the torturers. A.G. further stated that he was asked to be an informant inside the Gulen Movement, to sign the previously prepared statements, and to work for MIT.

Ayten Ozturk is a 44-year old woman who was abducted by MIT. During the court hearing of the lawsuit in which she was accused of being a member of the DHKP-C (Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party-Front Turkish: Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi-Cephesi), she has stated that she was tortured for six months long. She told that she was taken into custody by the Lebanese Police in the airport and turned over to the MIT, then brought to Turkey in a private plane, blindfolded, her mouth taped, handcuffed behind her back. Ozturk stated that she was continuously tortured from March 13, 2018, until August 28, 2018. She stated that she was brought to the interrogation center, which was only around 15 steps away from where the plane landed, that she was taken off all clothes, was dragged on the floor, and put in a padded cell.

ELECTRIC SHOCK, BEATING, ATTEMPTED RAPE

Ozturk stated that during the interrogation, she was exposed to following torture methods: Forced to stand naked in front of the torturers, sexually violated with batons, waterboarding, force-feeding, burning her fingers, keeping her in a coffin-like box, strappado torture, and many more. According to her statements in the court trial, she was especially exposed to different methods of torture during her menstrual periods. She was kept in a cell for 25 days, being handcuffed behind her back, blindfolded, and a sack being put over her head. She was exposed to force-feeding and was forced to drink large quantities of water while she was brought to the restroom. After 25 days, she got worse and was brought to the infirmary; since her eyes were kept closed during that period, her eyelids could hardly be opened using a liquid. She could only see the eyes of the individuals who were treating her because they were wearing snow masks. After treatment, the torture went on. She states that her entire body was full of wounds, that they had covered her body with a type of gel, that she was constantly exposed to profanity and harassment.

She stated that she was hung from her arms to the wall and force-fed, her hands and fingers were subjected to electric shock, and a hard-plastic tube passed through her mouth in order to force-feed liquid nutritional supplement. Some of the statements of Ozturk in the court trial are as follows: “It was impossible to move around inside the coffin-like box. And while in the cell, now and then, they were opening the door, beating me up, threatening, and cursing. My mouth and nose were drenched in blood; my entire face was swollen and bloodied, having black eyes. My little fingers and big toes were subjected to electric shock. They were attaching a metal ring on my fingers and using a remote controller to give an electric shock. I had lost consciousness a few times and could not get up.

 When they had a break from giving an electric shock, they were keeping me on strappado and abusing my body with their fingers, sticks, and batons. They were trying to insert the baton into my genitalia and performing every other perverseness. They were threatening to rape me with a thick baton. My feet were swollen from standing for a long time, and they were yet hitting my feet with sticks and batons. They put a sharp object under the nails of my three fingers and burned my little finger. The wound in my finger and the infection under my nails did not recover for months. Sometimes they were hanging me upside down and hitting my feet. When I was collapsing and feeling nauseated, they were lowering me down and using different methods of torture. They were letting me sit inside a tire and attempting to rape me with a baton. They were increasing the intensity of the torture, especially during my menstrual periods, and they were depriving me from sleep”.

“TORTURE CONTINUED AFTER-TREATMENT”

Ozturk stated that she has figured out that all of the 7-8 individuals in the adjacent cells were men just because she heard their screams and crying during torture. She stated that her body collapsed several times, she was treated by a special team, and then the torture has continued. According to her statement, the torturers told her: “We’ll treat you and then continue with torture sessions. This will go on just like that. There is no end. This is hell. You have no way out. We know everything about human anatomy. We are professionals. You won’t die, but you will beg to die. If ever you get out, you will be mentally ill”.

She stated that after six months, she was delivered to the police, and she was then officially arrested by police as if she was just caught ordinarily.

Ozturk is still in prison, and she is saying that she has serious health problems due to the torture she was exposed to, and she maintains her life only with the help of her cellmates. She states that her cellmates found 898 wounds and scars of torture all over her body.

İ.S., who is accused of being a member of the Gulen Movement and whose case is discussed in detail in this report, stated that he was exposed to torture in the same place for 7.5 months. Another individual, Zabit Kisi, states that he was tortured in the same place for 108 days. İ.S was exposed to similar torture methods described above and lost 30 kilograms; when he was released, even his wife couldn’t recognize him. İ.S states that the torturers told him that they were receiving money from the government in order to kill and torture. While İ.S was talking about the torture sessions, his voice was trembling, and he was occasionally crying; he had not fully recovered from the trauma. Zabit Kisi talked in detail about the inhuman treatment of rotating teams. He stated that his penis was bleeding for days due to beating, his fingers were smashed, his ribs were fractured and cracked, he was harassed, exposed to electric shock, and that they had injected a drug into his body. They had told him that they would kill him by injecting drugs and then tell the authorities that he died due to heart attack.

DECLARING AS TERRORISTS WITHOUT ANY TRIAL

According to hearings recorded on the TBMM books, reports of the human rights associations and statements of the families, 28 individuals were abducted and exposed to similar torture. It is unknown whether 6 of these individuals are still alive and, if so, where they are. Almost all of the individuals who were abducted were asked to work as informants and to sign the prepared statements when they were delivered to the police.

Recently some government officials who were working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Ankara and arrested on allegations of their links to the Gulen Movement were exposed to systematic torture in the official interrogation centers. Ankara Bar Association found evidence of torture and included them in its report, which is compiled as a result of the investigations based on the statements of the victims. While those government officials were arrested and before even they gave their statements, Minister of Foreign Affairs Mevlut Cavusoglu declared these officials as “FETO” terrorists, completely ignoring the presumption of innocence. Omer Faruk Gergerlioglu, one of the HDP members of the Parliament, stated that 100 individuals were exposed to different torture methods, including rape with a baton. After the report of the Ankara Bar Association about the torture, it has been asked for the officials who are responsible for the torture to be put on trial and to be suspended from their jobs, however until today; no action has been taken about it.

NO INVESTIGATION ABOUT TORTURING KURDISH PEOPLE

After July 15, it has been observed that the intensity of torture and ill-treatment has increased in the areas densely populated by Kurds. Three teenagers aged 14, 16, and 17 who were detained by police on suspicion that they were to protest on behalf of PKK, have obtained a health report from Van Training and Research Hospital and provided evidence that they were tortured in the police station. The teenagers explained to the president of the Van Bar Association Zulkuf Ucar how they were severely beaten and their heads put inside the toilet. Zulkuf Ucar then filed a criminal complaint against the police officers; however, no action has been taken.

Again in the city of Van, after an assault against police, three villagers were detained in a rural area, and they were severely tortured. The photo images of beatings were released to the public via social media accounts by the police officers themselves. The Office of the Governor in Van, which is the highest-ranked administrative office in the city, has released a note to the public stating that “3 terrorists were captured alive” before the statements of those individuals were taken and while the investigation about them was still going on. Moreover, the Office of the Governor also stated that those three individuals had confessed their crimes. Later it has been understood that those villagers, ages 35, 50, and 53 were walking in that rural area just with the purpose of picking wild mushrooms; hence they were released. Despite the pictures showing their bodies drenched in blood, no legal action has been taken against officials who tortured them.

The Government of the Republic of Turkey is responsible for the arrested or convicted individuals’ mind and body health and life safety. There are so many seriously ill, disabled, old, and pregnant individuals in prisons, arrested or convicted. The prisoners whose punishment should be postponed due to their conditions, according to the law, are being kept in jail despite their health reports. In many prisons, deaths, injuries, and disabilities occurred due to torture, ill-treatment, and negligence. This report records that 93 individuals have lost their lives due to torture, ill-treatment, and negligence.

SYSTEMATIC TORTURE GOES ON

During the state of emergency, the maximum period of detention without charge was increased to 30 days; during that period especially the military personnel was exposed to severe torture; their photo images were released to the public by the state official media outlets, such as TRT and Anadolu Agency, and some other pro-AKP government media outlets without any hesitation. Many deaths and injuries have been reported during the detention period. Although the state of emergency has ended, systematic torture of the detainees still goes on in the detention centers. UN and European Union commissions keep criticizing and warning Turkey and recommending to improve democracy and human rights at once. Local and national human rights organizations continue to document and report the cases of torture and the stories of the victims. The new cases of torture victims that AST has recently discovered and reported show that systematic torture and ill-treatment continue without slowing down.

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December 10th, International Human Rights Day Booklet

DECEMBER 10th, INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS DAY Booklet

10 aralık insan hakları gününde yüzlerce insan hakları gönüllülerinin destekleriyle 17 Farklı yerde yapılan aktivitelerin bir özetini sunan bu kitapçıkta bir çok demokratik protesto aktivitesi yer almaktadır. İnsan hakları ihlallerinin bir an evvel dinmesi için gayret gösteren gönüllülerimize teşekkür ederiz.

 

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Key Human Rights Concerns in Turkey since the So-called Coup Attempt

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Following the coup attempt on the 15th of July 2016, the Turkish government under the authoritarian leadership of Recep Tayyip Erdogan has taken a wave of oppressive actions against not only the alleged coup plotters but also those that are perceived as critics of the regime. Currently, as part of Turkey’s post-coup crackdown, more than 170,000 people including judges, academics, teachers, journalists, police and military officers, and other public servants were dismissed from their jobs. In correlation, more than 217,000 were detained and 80,000 were arrested. Amnesty International reports that detainees were “being held arbitrarily” with “no evidence establishing reasonable suspicion of criminal behavior” and that “only a tiny minority of them were accused of taking part in the actual events of the attempted coup”.
Amid the massive crackdown of hundreds of thousands of dissidents, human rights organizations and the U.N. Human Rights Council have noted that human rights are violated on a large scale by the Turkish government. Arbitrary killings, suspicious deaths of people in custody, forced disappearances, tortures, ill-treatments, injustice, and threats – mostly against the followers of the Gulen movement, Kurds, and the Leftists – were reported widespread during this large-scale witch-hunt.
As people continue to be arrested and many more tortured and abducted, the present brief of Advocates of Silenced Turkey (AST) highlights some of the key human rights concerns that took place in Turkey during this on-going period.

Unprecedented scale of dismissals: More than 130,000 civil servants, with their names attached in lists to emergency orders, were dismissed by emergency decrees. These civil servants included over 4,200 judges and prosecutors, 7,000 academics, 6,000 health-care professionals, 33,500 teachers, and 44,500 police and military officers. Not only were people dismissed arbitrarily but also banned permanently from working in the public sector – many were even banned to practice their profession.

Collapse of judiciary system: With approximately 4,200 judges and prosecutors (including two judges from the Turkey’s highest court) dismissed permanently, over one-fifth of Turkey’s judiciary has been removed. Of those dismissed, at least 2,200 were jailed with their assets frozen due to their alleged links to the Gulen movement. Consequently, the climate of fear paralyzed the judges and prosecutors who still have their positions. The fear combined with the heavy government influence in the court system led to the collapse of the judiciary system and the deterioration of human rights in the country. As a result, Turkey ranked 109 out of 126 countries in 2019 on the rule of law index of World Justice Project.

Victimization of lawyers: Lawyers are among the many groups affected by the post-coup crackdown in Turkey. They were unlawfully associated with their clients’ alleged crimes. Human Rights Watch (HRW) reported that many lawyers were targeted with criminal investigations with little or no evidence. According to the Arrested Lawyers Initiative, over 1,500 lawyers were persecuted over the past three years including 14 lawyers who were presidents of provincial bar associations – of those persecuted lawyers, one third remained imprisoned before and during their trials, and 274 were convicted of membership of armed terrorist organizations and sentenced to long prison sentences. Furthermore, approximately 34 bar associations were shut down by presidential decree with alleged affiliations to terrorist organizations.

The media purge following the attempted coup: In the aftermath of the failed coup, the government closed down 179 media outlets – including 53 newspapers, 37 radio stations, 34 TV channels, 29 publishing houses, 20 magazines, and six news agencies – with accused links to the Gulen movement, Kurdish opposition, or Leftists groups. Consequently, a total of 2,308 media workers and journalists have lost their jobs. The government cancelled hundreds of press accreditations and revoked passports of an unknown number of journalists and their family members to ban them from traveling abroad. In addition, the government imprisoned a record-breaking number of journalists in the wake of the coup attempt – with that, Turkey became the world’s largest prison for journalists. The Platform for Independent Journalism (P24) reported that at least 126 journalists and media workers were in prison in Turkey as of October 2019 – among them, many were put in long solitary confinement.
The absence of freedom of expression is not only a recurring problem for journalists but for citizens as well. In 2018, the Ministry of Interior reported that more than 7,000 individuals were detained for their social media posts after investigating 631,233 digital materials. In relation to the censorships and content restrictions in the country, Wikipedia has been blocked in Turkey since April of 2017. Currently, out of the 180 countries, Turkey ranks 157 th on the Press Freedom Index of Reporters Without Borders and are listed among ‘not free’ countries by the Freedom House.

Persecuting academics: Following the coup attempt, 1,043 private schools and 15 universities linked to the Gülen movement were closed by a presidential decree. Eventually resulting in the displacement of over 60,000 students across the country. Over 8,500 academics reportedly lost their jobs either due to direct dismissals or university closures since September 2016 – and many of them were imprisoned. Large-scale dismissals of academics and teachers significantly damaged the education sector thus diminished the right to education.

Crackdown on health care sector: Turkish government has shut down 14 hospitals and 36 medical centers after the coup attempt on the pretext of alleged ties to the Gülen movement. Therefore, an estimated 21,000 health care professionals were laid off – including doctors, academics, nurses, mid-wives, and other hospital staff. Of those, 5,261 are medical doctors and academics who specialize in the medical sciences. The figures of how many health care professionals have been detained, arrested or currently in prison are estimated in the thousands. Given the longstanding issue of hospital and staff shortages in the country, the dismissal of health care professionals and closure of hospitals left many patients in despair of medical care.

Prison conditions: With persecution of tens of thousands of critics, Turkey’s prisons have never been fuller – the prison population has increased from 171,267 inmates in 2015 to 260,144 in 2018. Given the capacity of 211,766, inmates are forced to remain in overcrowding cells. In order to free up space for more political prisoners, the government released nearly 34,000 convicts from prisons. The inadequate provision of heath care to prisoners also remains a serious problem. Officially reported by the Ministry of Justice Prison and Correctional Facilities, there were 271 doctors serving nearly a quarter million of the prison population – of whom, only eight were full-time. Insufficient access to fresh water, proper heating, ventilation, and lighting are other concerns for prison conditions.

Torture and ill-treatment: Despite the government’s stated zero tolerance for torture policy, human rights groups reported widespread and systematic use of torture and ill-treatment in police custody following the coup-attempt-including severe beatings, threats of sexual assault and actual sexual assault, electric shocks, water boarding, sleep deprivation, stress positions, long solitary confinement, and depriving of food and water. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) stated acts of torture and ill-treatment aimed “at extracting confessions or forcing detainees to denounce other Individuals” in its report on Turkey in 2017. The Human Rights Association (HRA) reported that the number of incidents where prisoners were subjected to torture and ill-treatment in
detention centers and prisons was 2,178 in 2016, 2,415 in 2017, and 1,505 in 2018. The Stockholm Center for Freedom (SCF) reported a total of 126 suspicious deaths and suicides since the coup attempt – most of those occurred in detention centers and prisons, seemingly a direct result of torture and ill-treatment.

Abduction and enforced disappearance: In the aftermath of the coup attempt, forced disappearances made a comeback in Turkey. Opposing politicians and respected human rights groups claimed at least 28 abductions or possible enforced disappearances of individuals. Most of the victims were identified as dismissed public servants with alleged ties to the Gulen movement or critics of the government. Allegedly, victims were abducted outside detention facilities and illegally questioned and tortured by Turkey’s intelligence agency. Moreover, Turkey’s intelligence agency reportedly snatched over more than 100 alleged Gulen affiliates from 18 countries – individuals often deported by cooperative governments without due process.

Women and children in prisons: The prison conditions for women and children are exceedingly alarming. According to the Justice Ministry, as of 2017, nearly 10,000 women and 3,000 children under 18 are in Turkey’s prisons. The inhumane prison conditions also hold weight in women prisons. They face additional issues of the male security staff frequently obstructing their privacy during hospital visits, often times leading to incomplete examination. Among the prisoners, there are pregnant women or women who just gave birth and 677 children under 6 years old imprisoned along with their mothers – including 149 infants under 1 year old. Pregnant women were forced to stay with other inmates in overcrowded cells, also denied access to proper prenatal care – posing serious risks to their well-beings.
Likewise, mothers with children were also forced to share a cell with inmates.

Restrictions on right to travel: Another unlawful activity being pursued during this period is revoking the passports of government critics with perceived affiliations to the Gulen movement, Kurdish opposition, Leftists groups and their family members. On this ground, the Turkish government put restrictions on approximately 155,000 passports, reported by the SCF. Since their passports are restricted, many people, with the fear of persecution, use smuggler routes to flee from the country.
Unfortunately, many died in the Evros River and the Aeagean Sea. Turkey revoking its citizens’ passports also causes travel struggles for those across the world.

Seized the critics’ assets: The Turkish government abuses laws to seize assets of its critics. As of March 2018, the government had seized the assets of approximately 1,124 businesses and 127 individuals. According to the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund of Turkey, the net worth of the seized assets is an estimated 49.4 billion liras ($9.4 billion) since the 2016 coup attempt. Moreover, in most cases, the government freezes the assets of those on trial, financially crippling them and their families.


 

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