Numbers Indicated Below Are from the Following Reports:

CHILDREN

  • By the end of August 2017, 668 children under the age of six are in jails across Turkey with their mothers, detained or arrested as part of the government crackdown on the Hizmet Movement. 149 of these children are infants under a year old.[1]
  • The Journalists and Writers Foundation is particularly concerned about the situation of the 668 children under the age of 7, who according to the Justice Ministry, are being held (as of August 2017) in Turkish prisons along with their mothers. According to this Foundation, 149 of these children in prison are under a year old; 140 are 1 year old; 124 are 2 years old; 117 children, 3 years old; 77 children, 4 years old; 44 children, 5 years old; and 6 children, 6 years old, the ages of the remaining 11 being unknown (see below). According to the Ministry of Justice, 344 of the children imprisoned along with their mothers are male and 324 are female.[2]
  • The Journalists and Writers Foundation is particularly concerned on the situation of 560 children,between 0 to 6 years old, who according to the Justice Ministry are being held (as of May 2017) in Turkish prisons along with their mothers. According to the same source, 114 children in prison are between 0 and 12 months old; 128 children are 1-year-old; 114 children 2 years old; 81 children 3 years old; 70 children 4 years old; 31 children 5 years old; 5 children 6 years old; while the age of the remaining 17 is unknown (see below). According to the Ministry of Justice, 291 of the children imprisoned along with their mothers are male and 269 are female.[33]
  • 5 children left alone in tears in front of Sincan Prison in Ankara as their mother was detained while they were visiting their jailed father. 856 people around the world raised $41,850 in a week as the elder brother shared a video, saying in tears: “We are five brothers, left alone. We have a handicapped brother. I commend those people to God’s punishment (January 2017).[47]

WOMEN

  • We Will Stop Femicide Platform February 2018 report indicated that 47 women were killed by men during the 28 day period.[157]
  • The Platform to Stop Murders of Women (Kadın Cinayetlerini Durduracağız Platformu) reported 237 murders of women in 2013, the vast majority of whom had been killed by partners, ex-partners, and family members.[3]
  • Most alarming, hundreds of women, children and elderly are among approximately 1,200 local residents killed between July 2015 and December 2016 in the context of security operations in Southeast Turkey.[4]
  • The Justice Minister Bekir Bozdağ revealed in February 2017 that at least 5 women have died under suspicious circumstances at the women’s prison in Kocaeli’s Gebze district, during the second half of 2016.[25]
  • There are several figures reported in the Turkish media which put the number of women in prison at 6,616 as of March 2016 and 7,894 as of November 2016. The number of women under custody pending trial tripled from 1,157 in March 2016 to 3,235 in November 2016. It is estimated that around 17,000 women are currently under custody across Turkey.[32]
  • Considering that Turkish prisons have a capacity of 180,176 the overcrowded jails present significant problems. There are only six prisons (one is an open prison) in Turkey specifically dedicated to women, while many women were incarcerated in prisons built just for men. Although women are kept in a separate section of these prisons, they are not allowed to enjoy their rights because of the lack of facilities specifically built to address women needs.[38]
  • Turkey’s Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu informed on April 2, 2017 that 113,260 people had been detained for alleged links to the Hizmet movement. Of these, 47,155 were formally arrested and put behind bars pending trial in the last eight months alone. Based on these figures, several estimates were reported by Turkish media outlets that the number of detained women is around 17,000; 560 babies are also into custody along with their mothers.[39]
  • At least 21 women were detained on September 5th as part of an investigation into the alleged “female network” of the Hizmet movement, accused of either providing financial support to the movement or involved in some form in its allegedly confidential activities (September 2016). Detention warrants had earlier been issued against 31 women, while 12 other women who had been detained in a separate investigation into the movement in Zonguldak (Black Sea region), were referred to court, on September 5, 2016.[42]
  • According to country’s left-wing Kemalist daily, Sözcü, an anonymous judge in a letter from prison stated she was arrested when she was in the 16th week of her pregnancy. Detained in August 2016 she was kept for 2 months in a room with 13 other female judges, in the Mersin’s Tarsus prison (October 2016).[43]
  • According to state-run Anadolu news agency, 17 women were detained on December 14, as part of an investigation into the Hizmet movement in Tekirdağ (Eastern Thrace). Four were arrested and one was released on probation; the remaining 12 were waiting to give their testimonies (December 2016).[44]
  • On January 5, detention warrants were issued for the wives of 105 military officers as part of an investigation into the Hizmet movement. Police officers were ordered to carry out operations in 31 different provinces. Detained women included the wives of 40 majors, 40 lieutenants, 14 lieutenant colonels, 14 first lieutenants and 2 colonels. Turkish media reported that the 105 military officers were already imprisoned over coup charges. The 105 women, among them teachers, academics, sociologists, and many other public workers, were accused of cheating in a countrywide exam popularly known as the KPSS to qualify for public jobs in 2010, among other accusations, including money deposit into Bank Asya (January 2017).[45]
  • At a parliamentary hearing it was revealed that at least 5 women have suspiciously died at the women’s prison in Kocaeli’s Gebze district since the attempted coup (January 2017).[46]
  • İstanbul Public Prosecutor’s Office issued detention warrants for 73 women on January 13, as part of an investigation into the Hizmet movement (January 2017).[48]
  • 21 women, including 10 with newborn infants and two over 70-years of age were detained in Afyon’s Dinar district as part an investigation into the Hizmet movement. Investigations carried out against 21 women whose husbands are in prison over links to the Hizmet movement, were allegedly aiming at pressuring their husbands to sign testimonies against their free will (February 2017).[50]

JOURNALISTS

  • Free Journalists Initiative (ÖGİ) noted in their February 2018 report that 171 journalists remain jailed, 16 journalists were detained,3 journalists arrested, 3 journalists given aggravated life sentence, 4 journalists given 10 years and 2 months prison time.[158]
  • In 2017, Turkey was ranked 155 in Reporters Without Border’s 2017 World Press Freedom Index.[156]
  • Arrest warrants have been issued for more than 100 journalists, and, according to P24, an independent journalism platform, 149 journalists and media workers now languish in Turkish jails – all but 18 of them in pretrial detention pending trial – making Turkey once again the world leader in locking up journalists.[77]
  • According to a report released by Turkey’s Journalists’ Association, 898 journalists were fired or forced to resign in the first five months of 2016 due to government interference and political pressure on editors or the owners of their media outlets.[78]
  • After July 15, Turkish authorities issued, over a period of several days, detention warrants for 116 journalists, media workers and executives with alleged Gülenist ties.[79]
  • Since May 2016, Turkish authorities have opened more than 50 criminal investigations into the journalists, writers, politicians and human rights lawyers involved in the solidarity campaign, at least 16 of whom have been referred to trial.[80]
  • Since Erdoğan was elected president in August 2014 his lawyers have filed almost 2,000 criminal cases on charges of insulting the president, hundreds of which were directed at journalists.[82]
  • The Bianet report on the first three months of 2016 recorded 86 persons, 53 of whom are journalists, facing legal action on charges of defamation or violation of personal rights of the former Prime Minister (Article 125(3) of the Turkish penal code) and the President (Article 299 of the Turkish penal code) via the media.[83]
  • a crowd of around 200 people that included AKP parliament member and head of the AK Party’s Youth Branch Abdurrahim Boynukalın, attacked the newspaper’s headquarters in Istanbul, assaulting security personnel at the outer gates before breaking windows and trying to get into the building.[84]
  • According to a report by the independent online news site Bianet, 174 journalists, columnists and media workers were forced to resign or laid off in the first quarter of 2016, compared to eight during the same period in 2015.[85]
  • At least 200 journalists were fired from outlets owned by the İpek media group after the government crackdown in 2015 and subsequent closure of their outlets.[87]
  • Of the 228 cases, 194 journalists are arrested pending trial, most without even an indictment and none with a conviction. 29 arrested journalists are women, including thirteen (13) Kurdish journalists, and four (4) previously working for now closed Hizmet-related media. Detention warrants have been also issued for 92 journalists who live in exile or remain at large.[8]
  • The number of journalists in pretrial detention on the basis of their writing and journalistic activities surged to 144 by mid-November[114]

EDUCATION SYSTEM, ACADEMICS & TEACHERS

  • Over 1,000 university lecturers who signed a petition criticizing government policy in the southeast subjected to a criminal investigation for “insulting” the Turkish state (January 2016), and 68 were fired by decree in September and October[59]
  • Alongside 28,000 teachers discharged, another 11,000 were suspended. (September 8, 2016)[88]
  • 11,000 teachers in the southeast who were mainly members of the left-leaning Eğitim Sen trade union were suspended[90]
  • In addition to institutions of higher education, 2,099 other educational institutions across Turkey, including hundreds of private K-12 schools, have been closed and all their assets expropriated and transferred to the Treasury.[93]
  • The closure of thousands of institutions immediately forced more than 128,000 students to either terminate their studies or relocate to other schools[94]
  • Students in these schools have faced some of the gravest consequences of these closures: they have been expelled from these institutions under the emergency decrees. Teachers and other administrative personnel have been unlawfully dismissed from their positions, based solely on political and administrative decisions – 44,385 in total.[95]
  • Along with their careers and right to work increasingly contributing unnecessarily to the precarious economic circumstances for hundreds of thousands of families, the future of approximately 1.5 million students and more importantly, the future of education in Turkey have been irreversibly impacted.[96]
  • The Governor’s office reported to Amnesty International that of the4,784 students registered at six schools within the six neighborhoods under curfew it had by June, provided free transport, one of the costs associated with continuing education, to 1,927 of the students while the remaining 2,857 students had been registered at alternative schools without being provided with transport.[97]
  • Information provided by the education union, Eğitim-Sen indicated that there were 15 schools within areas in Sur under curfew and a total of 7,450 pupils.[98]
  • According to the Ministry of Education, which has dismissed more than 30,000 employees in total, dismissed teachers are also barred from working in private schools.[99]
  • In a series of State of Emergency Decrees 71 from July 23 until April 2017 the government dismissed and/or revoked teaching licenses to approximately 44,283 teachers, mainly over alleged links to the Hizmet movement or the Kurdish PKK.[28]
  • Within two days of the coup attempt, the Education Ministry dismissed 15,000 educators and revoked teaching licenses of another 21,000 educators in private schools.[29]
  • On September 19, the first day of school year, a deputy prime minister announced that in the last two months the government had fired 27,715 teachers and another 9,465 remain suspended.[30]
  • By the end of April 2017, 372 signatories to the petition had been dismissed from their positions as academics under the decrees. The vast majority of them are among the 1,128 original signatories to the petition, rather than those who added their support later.[125]

KURDISH PEOPLE

  • The government secured the lifting of the parliamentary immunity of 148 deputies, 53 of them members of the pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democracy Party (HDP) facing investigation on terrorism charges. (May)[61]
  • Recently a prosecutor decided not to prosecute members of the air force or any state official for a December 2012 aerial bombardment near Uludere in southeastern Turkey, which killed 34 Kurdish men and boys.[100]
  • 8,930 members of Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) were detained and 2,782 party members have been imprisoned, including three (3) women governors. 494 HDP offices have been attacked; burned or vandalized, including the party headquarters (Between July 22, 2015, and March, 27, 2017).[10]
  • The Democratic Regions Party (DBP)17 co-chair reported that from September to November 2016, 700 party officials were arrested, along with 42 DBP municipal co-chairs(By the end of November 2016).[12]
  • 69 municipal co-chairs of the pro-Kurdish Democratic Regions Party (DBP) had been arrested, 58 had been dismissed and most had been replaced with “trustees” in 50 municipalities, or around 50 per cent of all municipalities held by DBP (By the end of 2016).[13]
  • At the 84 municipalities run by the pro-Kurdish Democratic Regions Party (DBP), 88 co-mayors and 6 deputy co-mayors were dismissed and replaced by state appointed trustees. The mayors and co-mayors are currently under arrest. These mayors and co-mayors were all democratically elected by the people with overwhelming majority. Around 10,000 municipality and humanitarian employees of Kurdish origin have been suspended from their positions (In April 2017).[14]
  • 117 investigations have been initiated recently in addition to 683 existing cases. 500 cases belong to HDP and members of parliament of HDP. The co-chairs of the HDP alone face 103 cases. Since the attempted coup, approximately two thousand members of the HDP have been detained.[15]
  • Over 40,000 people are estimated to have lost their lives, including civilians, military personnel, PKK members and “youth with unknown affiliation.” Millions of people, predominantly of Kurdish origin have been internally displaced or forced to leave the country.[26]
  • More than 200 people were killed and over 10,000 houses were destroyed in Cizre (Southeastern Turkey) alone during curfews in the beginning of 2016.[27]
  • Turkish police raided the office of Diyarbakir-based Kurdish language daily Azadiya Welat and detained at least 23 employees, six of whom were later formally arrested(August 29, 2016).[63]
  • In the main trial in Diyarbakir of 175 people charged simply for their association with the Union of Kurdistan Communities (Koma Civakên Kurdistan, KCK), a body connected with the PKK, all remaining defendants who had already been in pretrial detention for periods of over five years were released on bail[109]
  • Women, children and elderly also constitute the majority of those reported internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Southeast Turkey, estimated between 355,000 to half a million people, mainly citizens of Kurdish origin.[5]
  • The Ministry of Health reported that there were at least 355,000 displaced people from Cizre, Silopi and other areas of south-east Turkey where security operations had taken place.[73]
  • In the early hours of November 4, 2016, the Turkish police arrested 12 lawmakers (8 women) from the Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP), including its co-chairs, Selahattin Demirtaş and Figen Yüksekdağ, on a range of “terrorism”- related charges. Investigations were also initiated against 54 out of 59 MPs from the HDP, the third largest party in Turkey’s Parliament. Parliamentary immunity of 55 out of 59 HDP MPs was lifted, in a step clearly seen as enabling the prosecution of the party’s MPs.[11]
  • At least 58 curfews have been imposed in several cities in Southeast Turkey leading to restrictions in access to basic services for approximately 1,377,000 people living in these districts and to the death between August 16, 2015 and January 9, 2016, of at least 162 civilians (including 29 women, 32 children, 24 people aged over 60).[40]
  • In its report ‘Security operations in Southeast Turkey’, Amnesty International noted that: “On 26 May (2016), 42 people, comprising 26 men, 11 women and 10 children (five girls and five boys) were detained by security forces (June 2016).[41]
  • The authorities told Amnesty International that they recovered the bodies of 65 armed individuals and detained 68 peopleduring operations in Sur.[71]
  • The number of people displaced from Sur was estimated by the municipal authorities to be 40,000. In total at least 35 districts across the east and south-east of Turkey were declared under curfew. These include, notably, the city of Cizre, with a pre-curfew population of 120,000, for 79 days, Silopi 19 days, and Nusaybin, with a pre-curfew population of over 100,000, where a curfew remains in place in part of the city since 14 March 2016 despite clashes there ending over six months ago.[72]
  • Most of the 24,000 residents from the six neighborhoods in Sur under the main curfew remain displaced, as do a minority of residents from other neighborhoods within Sur.[74]

JUDGES & PROSECUTORS

  • More than 4400 judges and prosecutors have been investigated with more than 2400 put in pretrial detention.[159]
  • Turkey’s 14,000 judges and prosecutors elect ten regular members of the HSYK.[101]
  • Among the first duties of one of these newly appointed judges has been to order the July 22 detention of 100 police officers, which the media termed an anti-Gülenist operation targeting some of those police officers who played a key role in the December corruption investigation.[102]
  • 3,400 judges permanently dismissed, their assets frozen[104]
  • Over 4,000 judges and prosecutors were arbitrarily dismissed, of whom around 2,400 were remanded to pretrial detention pending trial on terrorism charges for FETÖ membership for their alleged links with the Gülen movement.[105]
  • Over 3,500 judges and prosecutors and an unknown number of law faculty academics have been dismissed.[106]
  • The High Council of Judges and Prosecutors (HSYK), in its decision to dismiss 543 judges and prosecutors, presented a detailed report of Gülen networks within the judiciary but no specific evidence against any of the judges and prosecutors dismissed and excluded from public office.[130]
  • By February [2017] 4,272 judges and prosecutors (close to two-fifth of Turkey’s judiciary) were removed over alleged ties to the Hizmet movement.[19]
  • At least 2,200 judges and prosecutors are jailed pending investigation, reportedly because their names appeared on a list of alleged Gülen supporters.[21]
  • On April 2, 2017, the Minister of Interior stated that 2,575 suspects were either judges or prosecutors. There are no accurate statistics on the number of detained judges; however, relying on the fact that 36.9 percent of the total number of judges in 2013 were female, the Journalist and Writers Foundation believes approximately 35 percent of all detained judges are women.[22]

OTHER CIVILIANS

  • Approximately 1525 lawyers have been prosecuted, 578 have been arrested and held in pre-trial detention and 99 have been sentenced.[162]
  • During last 8 months, 402,000 people face investigations for being part of the Gulen Movement.[161]
  • At least 1525 lawyers have been prosecuted, 578 have been arrested and kept in pre-trial detention and 99 sentenced[160]
  • During and since the Gezi protests, the authorities have charged thousands of people in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and other cities with participating in unauthorized demonstrations, resisting the police, and damaging public property and at least 5,500 have been subjected to legal proceedings.[107]
  • Media reported the detention of another 63 forensic specialists in Istanbul. (August 10)[111]
  • The Union of Turkish Bar Associations informed Human Rights Watch that 79 bar associations had reported that in total 202 lawyers had been placed in pretrial detention on suspicion of involvement in the coup attempt or links to the Gülen movement.[112]
  • Intense security operations in the period January to May in towns in the southeast where the city militias linked to the PKK had become entrenched resulted in displacement of up to 400,000 residents.[115]
  • According to official figures, at least 241 citizens and security personnel were killed, and over 2,000 more injured during the clashes in the capital Ankara and Istanbul (July 15, 2016).[116]
  • Around 130 wounded militants and unarmed activists sheltering in three basements surrounded by the security forces were killed in circumstances which the state has neither explained nor effectively investigated.[117]
  • The government introduced a decree appointing trustees to take over 28 municipalities (24 of them in the southeast), removing elected mayors and council members from office. By mid-November 53 had been dismissed and 39 arrested pending investigation.[118]
  • Amnesty International conducted a total of 61 interviews in Ankara, Diyarbakır and Istanbul for this report between December 2016 and April 2017. Of those 33 interviewees were dismissed public servants themselves, 17 men and 16 women who represent a cross-section of professions subjected to dismissal under state of emergency decrees.[121]
  • They told Amnesty International that up to the end of 2016, 2,094 of their members had been dismissed from their positions, and that many of this number were union activists or union officials.[124]
  • On 15 July 2016 elements within Turkey’s armed forces launched a violent coup attempt against the elected government. The coup attempt was resisted, in part due to ordinary citizens taking to the streets to face down armed soldiers and tanks, but only after a night of violence that, according to the authorities, left 234 people, including 34 coup plotters, dead and 2,191 people injured.[129]
  • As of September 2016, approximately 45,000 cases relating to the period of the state of emergency were already pending at the court, a figure likely to have increased exponentially by the time of the publication of this report.[131]
  • Significantly, the seven-person commission lacks the capacity to examine potentially over 100,000 appeals from dismissed individuals and the hundreds of associations and institutions closed down under state of emergency decrees.[132]
  • As of May 2017, the Journalists and Writers Foundation has been also able to document 695 cases (in 23 countries) where Turkish consulates have declined to provide consular services to Turkish citizens – including an alarming number of 76 (seventy-six) children who were denied access to birth registration and thus were born stateless. In addition, passports of 19 (nineteen) individuals were confiscated by Turkish representations without explanation, while in 10 (ten) cases Turkish citizens abroad in possession of valid passports/visas were not allowed to travel.[23]
  • In addition to extensive limitations, many lawyer’s associations across the country have been shut down and at least 287 lawyers are under arrest, while detention warrants have been issued for 708 attorneys since the attempted coup.[18]

MEDIA

  • Over 160 media outlets, most linked to the Gülen movement or Kurdish media, closed down by government[134]
  • In one such emergency decree, issued on July 27, 2016, the government ordered the closure of 131 media outlets, including 45 newspapers, 16 TV channels, 3 news agencies, 23 radio stations, 15 magazines and 29 publishing houses with alleged ties to the movement of US-based Islamic cleric Fethullah Gülen whom the government accuses of masterminding the failed coup attempt.
  • Turkish authorities used the same emergency decree to order the shut-down of 23 TV and radio stations popular among Kurds, Alevis and supporters of opposition parties(September 28, 2016).
  • Police detained 12 journalists and managers from one of the last remaining independent newspapers, Cumhuriyet. Ten were later formally arrested (October 31, 2016).[135]
  • 140 media outlets and 29 publishing houses had been shut down via emergency decree, leaving more than 2,500 media workers and journalists unemployed (by December, 2016).[136]
  • Taking advantage of the state of emergency in force since July 21, 2016 the AKP government has permanently shut down over 160 media and publishing outlets via decree.[137]
  • After the July 2016 coup attempt, 16 TV channels with alleged affiliations to the Gülen movement were closed down entirely.[138]
  • Decree No. 668, ordered 131 newspapers, news agencies, publishers, television and radio stations, and distribution companies to close down.[139]
  • This crackdown intensified as the government moved to shut down 23 pro-Kurdish TV and radio stations in September under emergency decree No.668.[140]
  • They revoked hundreds of government-issued press cards, without which journalistic work in Turkey can be impeded, and more than 30 news websites were shut down.[141]
  • By December 9, 149 journalists and media workers were in jail. Of 149, 131 were in pretrial detention after being formally arrested by a court on suspicion of committing crimes such as spreading terrorist propaganda, assisting a terrorist organization, membership of a terrorist organization and involvement in the coup attempt. (The remaining 18 have been convicted in the past and are serving sentences.)[142]
  • After the emergency decree that shut down 131 media and publishing outletsin July, 2016, 2,308 media workers lost their jobs.[143]
  • Taking advantage of its powers to rule by decree under the state of emergency, in place since July 21, the government has permanently shut down 169 media and publishing outlets, citing “national security concerns.”[144]
  • As a result of decree No. 668, announced under Turkey’s three-month state of emergency, 131 newspapers, news agencies, publishers, television and radio stations and distribution companies were ordered to close down.[145]
  • The authorities have remanded more than 47,000 people in pre-trial detention and closed down hundreds of associations, foundations and other institutions. These include the permanent closure of at least 156 media outlets and in one decree alone, 375 NGOs.[146]

HEALTH CARE WORKERS & DOCTORS

  • The first decree law [KHK 667] under the State of Emergency identified 35 private health clinics and hospitals for closure. As of August 2017, 6,687 physicians and other individuals working for the Ministry of Health have been dismissed. Many of the 8,573 academics dismissed from their positions during the same period were also healthcare professionals.[91]
  • A total of 12 health workers, including doctors, nurses and midwives were detained on February 16 in Eskişehir as part of an investigation into the Hizmet movement (February 2017).[51]
  • Turkish media reported that 29 staff from the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute were detained. (July 30)[57]
  • Until October 2016 Turkey’s Social Security Institution (SGK) excluded at least 400 pharmacies from its electronic prescription system, which prevents them to sell medicine and receive payments from the state.[92]
  • During a meeting with Amnesty International, Ministry of Health officials said that 6,383 of their employees that had been dismissed.[123]

MILITARY & POLICE

  • 668 of 25 July 2016, listed more than 1,600 members of the armed forces, dismissed on these grounds.[69]
  • In September 2012 an Istanbul court had sentenced 331 of the 365 suspected coup plotters, all members of the military, to jail time, including three retired Turkish generals who were handed life sentences that were later reduced to 20 years each. Thirty-four suspects were acquitted. The Court of Cassation upheld the majority of the sentences in October 2013.[149]
  • All 236 military suspects were cleared of all charges (After a retrial in March 2015).[150]
  • To date, in three waves of arrests, 180 police have been detained, with 40 placed in pretrial detention pending completion of criminal investigation, 5 of them on suspicion of attempting a coup (article 312 of the Turkish Penal Code).[76]

RULE OF LAW

  • European Court of Human Rights indicated that human rights violations have increased 571% during AKP rule.[155]
  • Turkey down two places to rank 101st in 113-country rule of law index. [151]
  • Turkey score places it at 13 out of 13 countries in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region.[152]
  • Turkey score places it at 35 out of 36 among upper middle income countries.[153]
  • Turkey is ranked 68th out of 75 countries in “Order and Security” category.[154]
  • Credible allegations of torture emerged in the trial in the central Anatolian town of Kırıkkale, of 64 defendants facing charges of membership of an armed organization (referred to by the Turkish government and courts as FETÖ – Fethullahist Terrorist Organization), and attempting to overthrow the government.[62]

PURGE

  • Based on monitoring government decrees and other reports from official sources, by the end of August 2017, Turkey Purge reported 146,674 dismissals and 124,698 detained individuals.[67]
  • By the end of April 2017 TurkeyPurge has reported 138,147 dismissals, mainly through monitoring government decrees and other reports from official sources.[31]
  • Last updated on March 18, 2017, the information contained in the website showed that 80,482 individuals were in pre-trial detention and 108,734 were convicted. That information, even though now outdated, shows a considerable increase compared to figures posted on the website exactly a year ago, on March 18, 2016, when 26,257 people were in pre-trial detention and 141,739 were convicted. [34]
  • In August 2016, acting under powers granted by the state of emergency authorities announced plans to release up to 38,000 prisoners (roughly one in five in Turkish prisons) of convicted criminals to make room for the wave of journalists, teachers, lawyers, civil servants and judges detained after the coup attempt. It appears that the government’s amnesty for convicted felons reduced the number of convicts in jail from 141,739 a year ago to 108,734 on the day the Justice Ministry stopped reporting.[35]
  • More than 100,000 public sector employees dismissed under the decrees.[52]
  • In the weeks following the failed putsch, tens of thousands of soldiers, police officers, judges, prosecutors, academics, teachers, and other civil servants with suspected ties to the Gülen movement were dismissed from their jobs, and at time of publication over 37,000 had been formally arrested.[64]
  • Since the failed coup attempt, the police have detained more than 40,000 soldiers, officers, policemen, judges, prosecutors, teachers and others.[54]
  • By late September, Turkey’s Justice Minister announced that around 32,000 people had been jailed pending investigation and criminal investigations were underway in relation to 70,000.[55]
  • Around 41,000 civil servants and public officials were permanently discharged from their jobs. (By September 1, 2016)[56]
  • More than 33,000 are teachers and other employees of the Ministry of Education, more than 24,000 are police officers and other employees of the Ministry of Interior, more than 8,000 are members of the armed forces, more than 6,000 are doctors and other employees of the Ministry of Health, more than 5,000 are academics and other higher education employees, more than 4,000 are judges, prosecutors and other employees of the Ministry of Justice and more than 3,000 are employees of the office of the Prime Minister and connected institutions.[68]
  • In addition,4,235 employees of the Ministry of Justice and 276 employees of the Council of State have also been permanently dismissed from their positions and their assets were frozen.[20]
  • Official figures show that in the past year well over 150,000 people have passed through police custody accused of terrorist offenses, membership of armed groups, or involvement in the attempted coup in July 2016.[126]
  • A May 2017 report by Amnesty International23 found that “the dismissal of more than 100,000 Turkish public-sector workers [was] arbitrary and has had a catastrophic impact on their lives and livelihoods.[128]

PRISONS

  • Turkey down two places to rank 101st in 113-country rule of law index. [151]
  • On October 14, 2016 Turkey’s Director-General of Prisons and Detention Facilities stated during a meeting at the Human Rights Commission of the Turkish parliament that Turkey’s prisons were over capacity, after nearly 40,000 new arrests (34,000 over links with Hizmet movement) following the coup attempt. According to the information shared by the Director-general there are nearly 195,000 prisoners in 372 prisons across Turkey, which is 4% over the maximum capacity.[36]
  • On October 20, 2016, the Human Rights Association reported that based on its observations and analysis there were 220,000 individuals in prisons across Turkey, exceeding by approximately 37,000 (over 20 percent) persons the overall capacity of 180,176.[37]

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

  • The government suspended by decree the activities of 370 nongovernmental associations (November 2016)[60]
  • Hundreds of Turkey’s leading women’s and children’s human rights NGOs and foundations are among 1,125 (one thousand one hundred twenty-five) registered associations/NGO, 560 (five hundred sixty) foundations and 19 (nineteen) trade unions permanently closed through a series of government decrees since the July 15, 2016 attempted coup.[6]

DEATHS

  • Reports by the Journalists and Writers Foundation and more recently the Stockholm Center for Freedom (SCF) have documented 54 suspicious deaths during the six months following the attempted coup (July 2016 February 2017). Most suicides in detention and outside places of deprivation of liberty have been committed by police officers, military personnel, teachers and academics, including at least 2 women. Fortunately, an equal number of attempts to commit suicide as shown below were not successful.[24]
  • Information complied by the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey recorded 321 deaths of unarmed residents in curfew zones, including 79 children, between August 2015 and August 2016.[133]
  • An estimated 2,360 people have died, including at least 368 people who were unarmed residents.1 It is likely that at least half a million people have been forcibly displaced by the violence, large-scale destruction of property and by ongoing curfews in areas across the south-east. This briefing focuses on the forced displacement of around 24,000 people from Sur.[127]

MISCELLANEOUS

  • The İHD report also underlined that maltreatment and torture in prisons increased in 2016. Turkish police raided 3,556 houses in the region in 2016 in which 150 minors and 6,710 adults were detained. 11 women committed suicide and 30 women died from domestic violence, while 2 children died in regional violence and 110 were subjected to sexual abuse in 2016, the İHD informed.[49]
  • According to reports, of 5,200 houses in the five neighborhoods, 1,750 had been demolished by October 2016 and at least another 500 were scheduled for demolition.[75]

 


 

  • [1] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.4, para.2
  • [2] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.18, para.2
  • [3] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.36, para.2
  • [4] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.5, para.5
  • [5] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.5, para.5
  • [6] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.5, para.7
  • [7] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.9, para.3
  • [8] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.9, para.4
  • [9] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.9, para.6
  • [10] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.10, para.2
  • [11] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.10, para.3
  • [12] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.11, para.1
  • [13] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.11, para.1
  • [14] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.11, para.2
  • [15] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.11, para.3
  • [16] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.12, para.4
  • [17] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.17, para.4
  • [18] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.18, para.5
  • [19] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.19, para.1
  • [20] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.19, para.1
  • [21] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.19, para.1
  • [22] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.19, para.1
  • [23] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.24, para.2
  • [24] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.24, para.3
  • [25] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.24, para.4
  • [26] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.26, para.2
  • [27] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.27, para.4
  • [28] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.29, para.5
  • [29] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.29, para.6
  • [30] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.29, para.6
  • [31] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.32, para.4
  • [32] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.41, para.4
  • [33] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.42, para.1
  • [34] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.42, para.3
  • [35] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.43, para.2
  • [36] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.43, para.3
  • [37] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.43, para.4
  • [38] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.43, para.5
  • [39] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.43, para.7
  • [40] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.48, para.2
  • [41] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.48, para.4
  • [42] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.51, para.2
  • [43] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.51, para.9
  • [44] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.53, para.1
  • [45] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.53, para.4
  • [46] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.53, para.5
  • [47] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.53, para.7
  • [48] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.53, para.8
  • [49] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.54, para.1
  • [50] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.54, para.2
  • [51] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, Women’s Rights Under Attack in Turkey (May 2017), p.54, para.5
  • [52] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.4, para.2
  • [53] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.26, para.4
  • [54] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.8, para.3
  • [55] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.17, para.4
  • [56] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.17, para.5
  • [57] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.32, para.2
  • [58] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.3, para.1
  • [59] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.3, para.4
  • [60] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.4, para.5
  • [61] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.5, para.6
  • [62] Human Rights Watch Reports, In Custody: Police Torture and Abductions in Turkey (October 2017), p.20, case 1, para.1
  • [63] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.10, para.4
  • [64] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.20, para.4
  • [65] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.12, para.2
  • [66] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.15, para.4
  • [67] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.18, para.1
  • [68] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.6, para.3
  • [69] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.7, para.1
  • [70] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.17, para.1
  • [71] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.8, para.2
  • [72] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.9, para.2
  • [73] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.9, para.2
  • [74] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.25, para.2
  • [75] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.26, para.2
  • [76] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.26, para.4
  • [77] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.7, para.5
  • [78] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.11, para.4
  • [79] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.21, para.2
  • [80] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.29, para.2
  • [81] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.34, para.4
  • [82] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.35, para.2
  • [83] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.35, para.4
  • [84] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.40, para.2
  • [85] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.54, para.5
  • [86] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.55, para.2
  • [87] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.55, para.2
  • [88] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.17, para.5
  • [89] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.3, para.1
  • [90] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.3, para.2
  • [91] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.13, para.3
  • [92] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.13, para.4
  • [93] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.16, para.5
  • [94] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.16, para.5
  • [95] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.16, para.6
  • [96] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.17, para.1
  • [97] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.19, para.1
  • [98] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.19, para.1
  • [99] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.14, para.2
  • [100] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.9, para. 2
  • [101] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.25, para.4
  • [102] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.28, para.3
  • [103] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.3, para.2
  • [104] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.3, para.2
  • [105] Human Rights Watch Reports, In Custody: Police Torture and Abductions in Turkey (October 2017), p.37, para.2
  • [106] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.13, para.2
  • [107] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.10, para.3
  • [108] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.18, para.1
  • [109] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey’s Human Rights Rollback: Recommendations for Reform (September 2014), p.21, para.2
  • [110] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.7, para.1
  • [111] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.32, para.2 “Adli Tıp’ta FETÖ operasyonu!.. 63 uzman doktor gözaltında” (“63 specialist doctors detained in Forensic Medicine Institute FETÖ operation”), Sabah newspaper, August 10, 2016, http://www.sabah.com.tr/gundem/2016/08/10/adli-tiptafeto-operasyonu-63-uzman-doktor-gozaltinda (accessed September 21, 2016).
  • [112] Human Rights Watch Reports, A Blank Check: Turkey’s Post-Coup Suspension of Safeguards Against Torture (October 2016), p.32, para.3 Human Rights Watch phone interview with representative of the Union of Turkish Bar Associations, September 20, 2016.
  • [113] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.1, para.2
  • [114] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.4, para.2
  • [115] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.5, para.2
  • [116] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.7, para.1
  • [117] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.5, para.3
  • [118] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.5, para.6
  • [119]
  • [120] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.8, para.2
  • [121] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.8, para.3
  • [122] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.10, para.2
  • [123] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.10, para.2
  • [124] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.11, para.2
  • [125] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.11, para.3
  • [126] Human Rights Watch Reports, In Custody: Police Torture and Abductions in Turkey (October 2017), p.7, para.4
  • [127] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.5, para.1
  • [128] Journalists and Writers Foundation Reports, The State of Turkey`s Children: Victims of Unlawfulness (October 2017), p.15, para.4
  • [129] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.6, para.1
  • [130] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.7, para.1
  • [131] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.17, para.2
  • [132] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.18, para.5
  • [133] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: displaced and dispossessed: Sur residents’ right to return home (December 2016), p.8, para.2
  • [134] Human Rights Watch Reports, Turkey: Events of 2016 (January 2017), p.4, para.2
  • [135] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.7, para.3
  • [136] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.7, para.4
  • [137] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.12, para.1
  • [138] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.12, para.3
  • [139] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.21, para.1
  • [140] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.12, para.3
  • [141] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.21, para.2
  • [142] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.21, para.3
  • [143] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.55, para.1
  • [144] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.63, para.1
  • [145] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.66, para.2
  • [146] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.6, para.2
  • [147] Amnesty International Reports, Turkey: no end in sight: purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey (May 2017), p.6, para.3
  • [148] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.26, para.3
  • [149] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.26, para.3
  • [150] Human Rights Watch Reports, Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism (December 2016), p.27, para.1
  • [151] World Justice Project: Rule of Law 2017-2018 (February 2018), p. 3
  • [152] World Justice Project: Rule of Law 2017-2018 (February 2018), p. 19
  • [153] World Justice Project: Rule of Law 2017-2018 (February 2018), p. 24
  • [154] World Justice Project: Rule of Law 2017-2018 (February 2018), p. 36
  • [155] Aktif Haber, http://aktifhaber.com/gundem/hak-ihlalleri-son-13-yilda-yuzde-571-artti-h112049.html
  • [156] Reporters Without Borders, https://rsf.org/en/turkey
  • [157] Aktif Haber, http://aktifhaber.com/yasam/kadin-cinayetlerini-durduracagiz-platformu-28-gunde-47-kadin-cinayeti-h113212.html
  • [158] Aktif Haber, http://aktifhaber.com//medya/171-gazeteci-hala-tutuklu-h113214.html
  • [159] IAPL Monitoring Committee on Attacks on Lawyers, “Turkey: Turkey jails 2,431 judges, prosecutors, dismisses 4,424 to date: Top Court”, 9 August 2017, at https://defendlawyers.wordpress.com/2017/08/09/turkey-turkey-jails-2431-judges-prosecutors-dismisses-4424-to-date-top-court/
  • [160] The Arrested Lawyers Initiative, as of 28 February 2018. https://arrestedlawyers.org/
  • [161] Ahval News ,https://ahvalnews6.com/tr/feto/aa-son-8-ayda-402-bin-kisiye-fetoden-islem-yapildi
  • [162] The Cape Society, http://silencedturkey.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Cape-Law-Society-Expresses-Concern-With-Wide-Spread-Arrests-And-Detention-Of-Judges-And-Lawyers.pdf